Financial Statement Analysis ASSIGNMENT

Financial Statement Analysis This paper presents the analysis of Barclays Bank PLC. The analysis covers the internal and external risks facing the firm. It also covers the financial health of the firm, the creditworthiness of the firm, and the accounting and financial procedures pursued by the firm. In section two of the paper, the report covers the analysis of the existence of any financial distress in the company.
Case Study Analysis- Barclays Bank PLC Task 1 Internal and External risk factors for Barclays Bank PLC The analysis of the financial reports of Barclays Bank PLC for the financial years 2014 and 2015 reveals that the company faces various internal and external risks. The report outlines five critical risks that the board terms as material risks. These risks are organized into general categories that include credit risk, market risk, operational risk, funding risk, and conduct risk. Of the five categories of risks that the organization considers as principal, material, and key risks, the market risk is the only risk that is considered to be an external risk while all other risks are considered to be internal risks.
Internal risks are risks that arise from within the organization, and that involve the normal operations of the company. In this instance, the internal risks include the operational risk, credit risk, funding risk, and the conduct risk.
The internal risks share a common characteristic which is the fact that they are all related to the day-to-day activities of Barclays Bank PLC and that they may be easier to mitigate as compared to the external risks.
Breaking down the risks under this category, the credit risk refers to the risk that the borrowers will default on the debt, which include the interest and the principal amount extended by the bank.
Notably, this is the greatest risk for the company considering the fact that the company is in the business of selling loan products as the core business. The second risk is the funding risk which relates to how the bank finance sits business.
The major source of funding includes the customer deposits and contractions in these deposits poses a high risk for the organization. Notably, there has been regulations affecting the way that banks can use the deposits considering the too-big-to-fail problem which is why the funding risk becomes one of the major risks.
The other two risks include the operational risk and the conduct risk, which involve operations and conduct of the employees of the firm (Barclay Bank PLC, 68%
The other two risks include the operational risk and the conduct risk, which involve operations and conduct of the employees of the firm (Barclay Bank PLC,
2015). On the other hand, external risks are risks beyond the control of the company. In this particular case and 67%
2015). On the other hand, external risks are risks beyond the control of the company. In this particular case and according to information published by the Barclays Bank PLC in the 2014 and 2015 financial reports, the major external risk facing the firm is the market risk that entails changes in the market structure that are beyond the control of the organization. Mitigating the market risk requires a good understanding of the changes in the business environment and the way these factors affect the business of the firm.
Financial Health of the Firm Financial health is simply a term used to describe the state of the firm’s financial situation. There are many dimensions to the firm’s financial health. The most common indicators of the firm’s financial health include revenue growth, expenses reduction or staying flat, cash balances, debt ratios, profitability, and activity ratios. From the general analysis of the Barclays Bank PLC case, the firm can be considered to be in good financial health (Sullivan, 2016). The following paragraph provides a detailed description of why this decision was reached based on the financial reports of the company for the years 2014 and 2015.
The analysis of the company’s financial statements indicates the main revenue to be interest income. In 2014, the interest revenue stood at £12.08 billion. This figure improved to £12.558 in 2015 indicating growth in the core business. Net operating income also improved commendably from £23.120 billion to £23.340 billion over the financial years 2014-2015. However, the operating expenses increased slightly over the same period resulting in a lower profit after tax of £623 million in 2015 as compared to a higher profit after tax of £845 in 2014 (Barclay Bank PLC, 2014).
From the consolidated balance sheet, Barclays PLC recorded an improvement in its cash position with the increase in cash and
balances in central banks from £39,695 million to £49,711 million over the period in focus. 90% 90%
balances in central banks from £39,695 million to £49,711 million over the period in focus.
The improved cash position indicates that the financial health of the company is better. David S. Y.pdf 88% 75%
The improved cash position indicates that the financial health of the company is better.
The assets of the company reduced slightly over the period resulting in £1,120,012 in 2015 as compared to £1,357,906 in 2014. 50%
The assets of the company reduced slightly over the period resulting in £1,120,012 in 2015 as compared to £1,357,906 in 2014.
Two of the items that were affected by the reduction of assets were the loans and advances to customers and other banks, and this is why the core business of Barclays PLC ought to be reconsidered.
Overall, the total assets of the company exceeded the total liabilities indicating that the company is likely to go into solvency in the coming years. These factors led to the conclusion that Barclays PLC is financially healthy, and this is in line with the firm’s focus for the year which was ‘returning to stability’ as captured in the financial report for the year 2015.
Analysis of all financial ratios of the company supported the conclusion that the firm is financial healthy (Sullivan, 2016). Credit Worthiness of Barclays Bank PLC The credit worthiness of a firm refers to a valuation performed by a lending entity to determine whether the borrower is likely to default in the payment of principal and interest in debt obligations (Investopedia, 2008). The credit worthiness is considered from the perspective of a firm’s loan repayment history, but since this information is not plainly available for large corporations such as Barclays Bank PLC, the credit rating or credit score presents one of the indicators of the firm’s creditworthiness. However, further analysis of the firm’s assets and liabilities outstanding provides a detailed view of the firm’s credit worthiness.
Barclay’s Bank PLC is AA- by Moody’s for the long-term credit facility and P-1 for the short term credit. This indicates a good credit rating for the organization indicating that the firm is worthy of credit extensions. From a general interpretation, the credit rating as presented by Moody’s indicates that the firm’s likelihood of default in debt repayments is extremely low, almost close to that of treasury instruments most of which have AAA rating (Barclay Bank PLC, 2016).
From the company’s financial reports, the total assets for the years in focus stood at £1,120,012 in 2015 and £1,357,906 in 2014 with these figures being in millions. The total liabilities stood at £1,054,148 in 2015 while in 2014 the figure was at £1,291,948.
Notably, the liabilities reduced over the year indicating that the firm was settling and meeting its debt obligations. Secondly, the debt to assets ratios of the company for the two years stood at 1.062 and 1.051 in 2015 and 2014 respectively indicating notable improvement over the year.
This improvement was also noted in the debt to equity ratios and the firm’s days in receivables. Coupled with the improvements in the revenues and the net operating profits of the company, it is prudent that the company has a good credit rating and that it is credit worthy.
Analysts may, however, recommend that the firm desists from taking credit shortly to continue improving its financial position (Barclay Bank PLC, 2015). Financial and Accounting Procedures at Barclays Bank PLC The Barclays Bank PLC reports analyzed in this case are the consolidated statements and reports of the undertaking. Consequently, the key accounting procedure that one must take note of in the analysis of the company’s financial statements is the manner in which consolidation is handled. From the notes to the financial statements, the company clearly indicates that it complies with international financial reporting standards on consolidation processes, and this relates specifically to the IFRS 10, which details the preparation of consolidated financial statements (Barclay Bank PLC, 2015). Notably, these accounting procedures help the company in complying with the exchange laws as well as the tax laws in the country of primary registration.
On the financial aspects of reporting, the company captures the concern of foreign currency translation. This captures the effect that transaction and 62%
On the financial aspects of reporting, the company captures the concern of foreign currency translation. This captures the effect that transaction and balances in foreign currencies are translated into the reporting currency that is the Sterling Pound (Barclay Bank PLC, 2015). The company reported that it uses the end of period exchange rates for the recognition of these rates. Consequently, the company recognizes a gain or loss on the translation of the foreign exchange denominated transactions and balance sheet items.
Notably, the consolidation reporting and the foreign currency translation are the two major reporting procedures that would be of interest to any analyst of the company’s financial reports considering the many loopholes that exist in the company’s reporting. However, there are also other procedures that the analyst would look into, and these include reporting by single entities or segmented reporting. This is important to the understanding of the entities in the consolidation that are underperforming.
Task 2 Distress Analysis Distress analysis in this particular case relates specifically to financial distress as it relates to the case of Barclays Bank PLC. Financial distress refers to a condition where a company fails to meet, or it has difficulties paying off the debt owed to its creditors. This is majorly due to high fixed assets, the holding of illiquid assets on its balance sheet, as well as highly sensitive revenues, such that simple economic downturns are likely to highly affect the performance of the firm. The implications of being in financial distress include having to acquire financing at high costs, opportunity costs, and the implications on the morale of the workforce. Chances of insolvency increase with increased financial distress and the firm may at times file for bankruptcy (Johnston, 2016).
From the analysis of the financial statements and specifically the balance sheet of the Barclay Bank PLC, the firm is not going through financial distress. Notably, the firm can settle both the short term and long term debt without any need for the firm to pay the short-term liabilities with long-term funds that are more expensive. The analysis also indicates that the firm continues to pay its liabilities with the liabilities in 2015 being lower than the liabilities in 2014 (Barclay Bank PLC, 2015). The other facet of the distress analysis is the observation that the debt to equity ratios and well as the coverage of the assets to the debt improved over the period in consideration. The firm is therefore highly unlikely to get into financial stress soon.
One of the major indicators of any financial distress would be the firm’s cash position. Notably, the firm’s cash and balances at hand improved tremendously over the period in consideration (Barclay Bank PLC, 2015). This was supported by improvements in the revenues and the net operating profits in general. This indicates the continued ability of Barclays Banks PLC to meet any debt obligations considering that this is paid from the firm’s operating income. The only small discrepancy in the financial statements of the entity was the reduction in net profits after tax, which was affected by an increase in the cost financing or the interest of the company. Overall, the firm is not facing any financial distress.
Conclusion This paper presents the analysis of Barclays Bank PLC. The analysis encompasses various facts of the firm’s financial situation, and the analysis indicates a company that is performing well. The firm improved the revenues and the operating profits of the company. The assets of the company exceed the liabilities, and the firm reduced its liabilities over the period indicating that it can meet its liabilities. Additionally, the firm’s cash balances improved indicating that the firm is not suffering from any financial distress.
Recommendations The analysis recommends the improvement of the firm’s assets to liabilities ratio to at least 1.25 before considering taking in more debt. The improvement will improve the firm’s credit rating and ability to acquire funding at a lower cost.

Determining Factors Of Demand And Price Of Computers Economics Essay


Prehistoric men never had computers and internet but its appear that they wanted to count and make calculations accurately. The limits of man body’s ten fingers, ten toes caused early people to build something to help with those mathematics. Let’s stop here for a moment and consider a typical day in our life. For breakfast you might have sat on a chair from a tree grown in Sweden, eaten bread made in a local bakery from wheat grown in the USA and beef from cows raised in Ireland packaged in plastic bags made in the UK. We use a computer, assembled and packaged in China but electronic chips designed in USA, so people’s needs and choices created such a behavioral or social science where they use scarce resources that nature and previous generations have provided. (Merchantos 2010), (Heather et al, 1999)

In Economics, the market relations between prospective sellers and buyers of a good are known as Demand and Supply. The price and quantity sold in a market is determined by the Demand and Supply model. James Denham-Steuart first used the phrase supply demand in his book named Inquiry in to the Political Economy, published in 1767. There is always a change in Demand and Supply of a particular product in a market due to many reasons. There are few products whose demand or supply doesn’t change with respect to price. These are known as inelastic products. A very good example of perfectly inelastic product is Penicillin. There are elastic products too which demand changes with respect to price and people don’t hesitate to opt for a cheaper alternative. Tea and coffee are the best example of an elastic product. (Statemasters 2010)

This theory focuses on the factors that determine the Demand and Supply of Personal Computers in a free market. The report has been prepared through in-depth analysis of the market. The yearly price and sales of PC’s and through various suppliers in the market were examined and collected obtain this report.

2. Market Structure of Computers

In year 2001, 125 m PC were transported, compared to 48 thousand in year 1977. 500 million or more than PC were in use in 2002 and a huge number of one billion personal computers had already been shipped worldwide since in the mid of 1970. Seventy five percent were professional or business related, the rest of the personal computer were sold for personal or domestic use. 81.5 percent of PC had been sold, desktop computers, 16.4 percent laptops and 2.1 percent servers. (Translationdirectory 2010) We can elaborate easily with help of below table :

Table 1 : PC’s shipment by year and numbers


PC’s shipped in Numbers




125 million

2002 (PC’s in use)

500 million

Total shipped up to 2002

1.014 billion

(Cnetnews 2002)

Table 2 : PC’s shipment by Region


Shipment Share

United States

38.8 %

Western Europe





9 %

Latin America

4.1 %

Rest of the world

11.8 %

(JeremyReimer 2009)

Table 3 : The Global computer shipment by year




264 million


239 million


205 million


183 million


152.6 million


136.7 million


133.5 million


140.2 million


100 million


93.3 million

(Pcworld 2007)

Bigger markets, for example, United States, Europe, Canada, Japan accounted for fifty five percent worldwide installed PC’s. New rising markets were predicted to make twice their installed PC’s by 2013 and to take seventy percent of the second billion PC’s. Nearly 180 m PC were predicted to be replaced and 35 m to be destroyed into landfill in year 2008. The whole base grew as 12 percent annual rate. In the last, in future there is an increasing number of PC import and export worldwide. (Jeremyreimer 2009)

Factors Affecting Demand of Personal Computers

3.1 Price of Personal Computers

In 1976 Apple took a giant step in the international market producing personal computers and introduced Apple I at the Homebrew Computer Club, California with a price of $ 666.66 followed on with Apple II for $ 1,195 including 16K of RAM. Gradually increasing numbers of computers helped Microsoft sales for 1989, reached by remarkable $ 1 billion by making software programs for micro and network computers leaving other software companies behind. (Atariaarchives 2010)

The demand of Personal Computers and its accessories will gradually increase in future. There are various manufactures are available in the market today who are selling desktop computers, Laptops and network servers. Table below is giving an overview different suppliers in the market and their share of market occupation :

Table 4 . PC Volume and Market Share

Netbook PC Brand

Volume (millions)

Market Share



38.30 %



30.30 %



5.80 %



5.70 %



2.80 %

OLPC (One laptop per child)


2.30 %



2.30 %



1.00 %

Intel (Classmate Refer Design)


1.00 %



0.70 %



0.50 %

All others


9.10 %



100.00 %

(Displaysearch 2008)

Manufacturers are trying to launch their products equipped with latest technologies to take part in a market full of competition. Computers have become nuts and bolts of almost every area of defense related issues, industries, administration, medical science etc., human needs will be demanding electronic machines full of technology to the manufacturers in the future.

Figure 1 shows a shift to the right (increase in demand)

The price of Personal Computer’s price has been coming down year by year as more competitors entered in market with their products, new brain storming ideas and innovation in research and development is still going on, therefore there is a increase in demand but if price gets higher then there would be less demand for personal computers.

3.2 Price of the Substitute (Laptops) :

Those goods which satisfy same needs or goals of a product are called substitutes. Substitute example would be a laptop for Personal Computer. With increased laptop prices, people would shift from laptop to pc, and with decreased laptop prices, they would shift from pc to laptop. Laptops are substitutes of Personal Computers and are very hand today, for a various reasons. These reasons give considerations as to what one should find for when start buying a laptop.

Most evident reasons to get laptops are that people prefer laptops to desktop machines due to their volume and construction. Laptops, design vise, are pretty slim, smaller and more compact, so they ensure portability. In the market many laptops can actually be found beneath £400 at the right outlets and at the right time period. Buyers like laptops over desktops because that they can work on a long-live battery and do not need a wire to access the Internet.

Changes in government policies in developing countries like India and China can affect the potential growth rates in their markets. For instance, the removal of import duties on laptops in India in 2005 was one of the factors that resulted in a growth of 94% in laptop sales in 2005. (Accessmylibrary 2006)

(Applematters 2010)

Since the laptop industry represents a segment of the broader personal computer (PC) market, data regarding the PC industry is also relevant in the analysis of the laptop industry. If price of substitute is increased then demand for that product would increase as well, which we can elaborate in the following graph :

Figure 2 shows shift to the right (increase in demand)

Similarly if the price of complements increase for a specific product, demand for personal computers would get less and with low prices consumption of pc would be high, e.g., complements for a personal computer are monitor, printer, mouse, wifi broadband connections, therefore if complements prices are higher then demand for PC’s would decrease which we can describe easily with a demand curve :

Figure 3 shows shift to the left (decrease in demand)

Prices of complements and substitutes play an important role of any product life-cycle. These two factors substitute and complements can effect any product demand in the market in good or bad way. Consequently, if PC’s price is increased then price of laptop would increase as well and same with complements. demand would decrease and with decreased price of its complements demand for personal computer would increase as well.

3.3 Income :

Income is saving and consumption opportunity acquired by a person within a given time period, which is normally presented in monetary terms. However, domestically and individually, income is the plus of all the wages or salaries, profits gained, interests’ payments, rents and other earnings gained time period.

The education and income level of users affects the brand perception of the computer manufacturers. As shown in Figure, households with higher income have higher percentages of Apple computers. Such households are also more likely able to afford (and want) Apple computers. This has allowed Apple to continue its strategy of premium pricing and performance compared to Windows PCs, while at the same time increasing its market share of the total laptop and PC market.

Metafacts (2008)

Income can increase in two ways, first is the wages, pension, funds, state benefits increase and second is if the inflation rate gets lower. Changes in income can increase and decrease demand of any good. We can explain goods in two following ways :

Normal Good

Inferior Good

A good whose demand increases with an increase in income is called a normal good, whereas a good whose demand decreases with an increase in income is called inferior product. For example with an increased income people would tend to eat personal computers or laptops rather than buying tape recorders or cd players. We can elaborate this law of demand with an increased income graph which would do shift right.

Figure 4 shows shift to the right (increase in demand)

With the help of above two figures we can explain that with increment of income, the demand for personal computers is increased, e.g., apple users have higher income because they can afford those prices.

3.4 Population :

Population increment is basically caused by natural increment, that is, the higher percentage of births over deaths. In some region, migration also make population increment when the amount of immigration increases the amount of emigration. The global human population is projected to grow from 6.83 billion in 2009 to 9.15 billion in 2050, an increase roughly equivalent to the population sizes of India and China combined in 2000 and nearly the size of the whole world population as it was in 1950. (Population-growth-migration 2010)

(OnlineOpinion 2003)

The economic reforms in China over the past two decades have brought outstanding growth, the development of a private sector and significant reform of the state-owned sector and productivity has improved dramatically. China has become a significant global economic player today which is operating as a source of regional and global production networks in computer and accessories. Increase in population, we can describe as shift right in the following diagram :

Figure 5 shows shift to the right (increase in demand)

Increase in population can increase demand of any normal good in economy and less supply for suppliers, as computer has become the base of every administration so demand would increase as well. Countries like Chine or India with huge population would need more computers because of the huge demand of people.

3.5 Future Price Expectations :

Future prices are direct responsible for increase or decrease of demand of any product. If people know that computer prices are going to be exceed in near future or there is going to be shortage of supply then they would start buying computers and demand for that product would increase in short term, figure below can elaborate increase of PC’s demand according to future price expectations :

Figure 6 shows shift to the left (decrease in demand)

Figure above can clearly explain about future price increment which can increase the demand of personal computers in the market. If people come to know that price is increasing in the future then they would start buying and demand would increase short term.

Factors Effecting Supply of Personal Computer’s

4.1 Production

In present world, Personal Computers are used for different tasks and are playing a very important role in fields of academics and business. The processes that are implemented to isolate the PC from several small particles to a desktop machine, are manufacturing facilities, assembling hardware, installation and test of software.

Manufacturers are also trying to design best computer (with price ranges) for the lowest cost and best usage. High quality parts are ordered from their manufacturing factories or outside supplier when a particular model is designed. Manufacturing people also note the demand of consumer, on daily basis to improve and establish efficient quantity for production. To stop faulty systems shipment, quality control is ensured properly. (Bestread 2007)

(Notmytribe 2008)

Having a good usage of production factors, mining the lands, good resources of water, crude oil, electricity, better wages, pension plans and of course manpower, all can boost to supply, we can explain with the following graph :

Figure7 shows shift to the right (increase in supply)

The usefulness of the productive factors and subsequent consumer demand for better goods would give pressure on manufactures and supplier to design more reliable, high quality products in future years. Goods available usage of factors of production can give a boost producing supply of any product.

4.2 Technology :

Technology is the main tool of science for an any industrial or commercial purpose. The Computers have literally revolutionized all the ways people doing. In previous last decade, Internet absolutely creatednew ways of businesses where people do interaction. Technology is helping nearly every fields production, it revolutionized computer industry and it started giving more production. Ringsurf(2010)

Factors involved in Technology

4.2.1 Innovation : Throughout research and development in technology, micro-chips industry and other relevant accessories, computer industry is getting new innovative and brainstorming ideas to develop new technology by increasing its functionality and reducing its volume.

4.2.2 Structural and Mechanical Systems : Vehicles, underground stations, hydraulic systems, hydroelectric power plant, and the steam engine are just three of the many important mechanical technology achievements which are giving huge production in relative fields. Computers based robotics systems are working in many industries in developed countries, e.g., Japan, USA, Canada, Sweden and Germany. Ringsurf(2010)

4.2.3 Education : Free education provider countries like Germany and Sweden having Innovation and new ideas among all fields through research among students. All these factors allow consumers to take fully advantage of the products and their relative features. With increasing technology issues there would be more supply in the market, which we can explain with the following graph :

Figure 8 shows shift to the right (increase in supply)

In the end, technology is playing very important role in our daily life through being smart and more useful. Its upto us how we decide to use it. Every day manufacturers are doing research and analysis on relative products to give more output to the consumers. It is all moved to designing and assembling next generation of video graphic games and consoles, or the latest in self-guided robots based weaponry in battlefield, it’s all human inventions that will release human consequences as well.

4.3 Preferences against Supply :

As computer have become the nuts and bolts of every corner of life from schools to universities and from local security offices to national security. There are many preferences reasons which can affect computers supply in the market. :

4.3.1 Natural disasters: Natural disasters can effect supply of any product, e.g., floods, diseases, electricity shortfalls can also effect decreased supply.

4.3.2 Political factor: If country has gone into a war-torn situation then there is lack of supply. In Canada, the enforcement of the WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directive will increase the cost of computers by $15. Environment-agency(2010)

4.3.3 Labor Union: Labor is the backbone of any country’s economy, without labor no any factory or industry can run, except if it is fully mechanical-robotics operated. If labor union demands an increment in wages or pension or other requirements, this can seriously affect price and supply of that particular product. Figure below can show all this in more detail:

Figure 9 shows shift to the right (decrease in demand)

Above given factors can affect supply of any product in an industry and also increase in demand. By keeping well maintained we can overcome these supply issues.

Falling price of Personal Computers and increasing Demand

Personal Computer’s prices have been coming down in the past few decades. Innovation in technology, competition, production and many other factors have effected price, demand and supply of PC’s. If stability of any country’s income sustains then the Personal Computer’s price would remain as same it is before but if economy’s movement is downwards then its fluctuate price of PC’s as well. We can assume in an open market where personal computer’s prices are continuously falling, that there is quite big competition in the market as more suppliers are coming on. Therefore demand of PC’s would get higher with advertisements through different communication channels. Finding information has become so easy ever with a click of a button so people are trying to less down budget on buying Personal Computers. For example, in UK, Pcworld and Curry’s digital are leading the PC market, but with the emergence of Comet other companies decreased their prices and people were more able to buy PC’s than ever before, which we explain with the following graph:

Above diagram shows decrease in price which has effected increment in demand and supply as well due to competition, technology and production. Price became cheaper and more competitors entered in market which reflected the price downwards and increased demand and supply shift to the right.

Conclusion :

Economics’ study is basically about human being’s behaviour in sense to gain limited resources to overcome unlimited needs. Production tells us ways that how economy can give its assets to get output. With this knowledge, countries will move for specialization in trade products.

Demand and supply have a strong relation with price, as price gets high, quantity for that demand would decrease and quantity for supply would be high. Many factors effect demand and supply of a product in a market. Demand for a product would increase if price get cheaper but then supply would get less, as more people would buy. Price of substitutes and complements also play an important part in product life cycle.

Countries with higher natural resources have large production with help of upcoming technology. Natural disasters like floods, diseases can effect demand and supply straightway. Political situation of any country can have direct effects, if manufacturers or supplier have less tax to pay then price would get low and demand would be high.

In the future, Personal Computers demand is forecasted to grow to a market share of 20% of the global PC’s industry by 2010, either its a PC or Laptop, its all depend on personal or corporation needs. Laptops have affected the industry in two ways: a price reduction and a change in consumer preference. Thus, the continuing long-term trend of decreasing profits in spite of increased sales volume has forced companies to adjust their business models to maintain profitability. PC manufacturers will continue to have increased growth in the laptop segment, in part due to the international market and netbooks, but will be faced with decreasing profit margins. It is not clear whether the future demand for Personal Computers is sustainable and therefore, in the long term manufacturers will have to adapt by increasing the focus on the services segment.

Costs And Benefits Of A Non Monetary Nature Economics Essay


Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is a technique which seeks to bring a greater objectivity into decision making. It is a well respected appraisal technique that is widely engaged by both public and private organisations to aid the decision making process. It can be applied to almost any kind of decision in any kind of field. It is help to identifying all the relevant benefits and cost of a particular scheme and quantifying them in money terms. The process arrived in the United Kingdom in the 1960s for use in the transportation sector. CBA techniques was extended to cover a wide range of applications, such as water resource management, motorways, nationalized industries, airport locations, forestry, recreational facilities and a wide range of urban investment projects (Paul, 2000).

Private sector, direct monetary costs and benefits determine the profitability or increase the output and investment. Public sector, all costs and benefits for all individuals affect by an investment must in some way be evaluated. Welfare economics helps to solve such problems as how to evaluate costs and benefits of a non-monetary nature, hoe to assess social benefit when no charge made for public facility and how to adjust for market failure.

Government Decision- making

Government may take the form of regulation such as building regulation to reduce fire hazards, taxes or subsides or providing goods and services. The difficulty is many public-sector goods are provided free or below market price. Further, need to focus short-term effect on the economy and the long-term sustainability of the public finances.

CBA is likely to have its main use in the public sector where:

Price signals are inadequate to guide investment decisions

Spill-over benefits and costs are important owing to the magnitude of the schemes

The welfare of unborn generations has to be allowed for

History and Uses of CBA

CBA is currently used in both government and international organization. While certain concepts of the technique oriented from Europe in the 1840s, the use of CBA in environmental economics is a relatively new occurrence becoming established after regulations were set by the US government which made the use of CBA mandatory in the 1930s (E.J. Mishan and Euston,2007). It was used to create a solution to problems of water provision. After World War II, there was pressure for “efficiency in government” and the search was on for ways to ensure that public funds were efficiently utilised in major public investments. This resulted in the beginnings of the fusion of the new welfare economics, which was essentially Cost-Benefit Analysis and practical decision-making. The process arrived in the United Kingdom in the 1960s for use in the transportation sector. It was applied to the construction of the M1 motorway and the Victoria line on the underground (Economic & Labour Market Review, December 2008). In recent years, it is recognised as the major appraisal technique for public investments and public policy.

Cost Benefit Analysis

CBA rests on the identification of a potential Pareto improvement. The basis for this is the proposition that a decision is justified if those who benefit from it could compensate those who lose by it. Compensation needs not actually occur. What is important is that the costs of a policy to those who suffer the costs are exceeded by the value that beneficiaries place on it. This may still remain an adequate basis for decision making because CBA attempts to establish whether resources are being used efficiently. It will often be the case that the incidence of costs and benefits, i.e. who bears them, will also be important. CBA may provide a framework for identifying precisely where the costs and benefits fall so that a political judgement may be made as to their acceptability.

CBA is a technique for evaluating public spending, which aims to avoid inappropriate distribution of public resources. In theory, it helps public decision-makers to invest only in those projects that will be the most profitable from the viewpoint of the community.

To function correctly, CBA must be employed before the decision is made so that the potential of the various project proposals can be compared and evaluated. It ”aims to evaluate the set of direct and indirect effects of a project, its financial and non- financial effects on the set of economic agents concerned with the investment. These effects are then synthesized, after monetary evaluation, to insure a socio-economic balance which establishes the return on the investment, with this return being estimated on the basis of specific indicators” (Auzannet, 1997).

According to Boardman (2006) the major steps in CBA are as follows;

Specify the set of alternative projects

Decide whose benefits and cost count

Catalogue the impacts and select measurement indicators

Predict the impacts quantitatively over the life of the project

Monetize (attach dollar values to) all impacts

Discount benefits and costs to obtain present values

Perform sensitivity analysis

Make a recommendation

3.1 The Main Consideration in CBA

Individual projects may create specific problems. There are number of considerations which are common in CBA;

The projects in the public sector should be capable of achieving a potential Pareto improvement in social welfare. That is, social benefits involve any gain in welfare resulting from the project including non-market benefits such as investment in public transport may produce benefits in the form of lower congestion, accidents, noise and pollution. Also many public facilities are provide free of charge to users, social benefit, determine by willingness to pay criteria may have to estimate indirectly.

The evaluation of non-market gains and losses. It is useful to separate two categories. The first one is, no direct market exist and the second one is no efficient surrogate market exist.

Distributional issues represent. It means, if a project is expect to produce an excess of social benefit over social cost, there may be still be some objection that the creation of a potential Pareto improvement will tell nothing about who gain and who loses.

Discount rate.

3.2 Limitations of CBA

CBA cannot be used where political decisions dominate.

CBA may be difficult to apply to certain decisions such as the survival of a species of animal or plant.

CBA cannot deal objectively with the redistribution of income which results from a project.

CBA encounters formidable difficulties both measuring and aggregating intangible.

There is always the problem of the cut-off point in deciding the benefits and costs to be included.

Application to Construction Industry

Government is the responsible for roads, bridges, airports, parks, amenity land, new urban areas and housing. CBA preferred by many transportation economists. It assesses all benefits and costs associated with highway project, including both capital and user costs. In this case, project requires less cost but provides more benefits throughout the analysis period is chosen first. CBA evaluate in monetary terms. Traditionally, a benefit-cost ratio, net present value or internal rate of return has been used. Recent research suggests that the net present cost may provide the best project selection measure if the transportation program is under financial constraints (Reed and Rutherford, 1997).

4.1 The use of cost benefit analysis in the transportation sector

Transportation policy and planning decisions often involve tradeoffs between conflicting objectives. Most highway cost allocation and investment evaluation studies are primarily concerned with direct market costs, such as road construction and maintenance, travel time, vehicle operating costs, and crash damages, and how these vary depending on vehicle type and roadway conditions. They assumed that the total amount of vehicle travel does not change and so were unconcerned with vehicle ownership and parking costs. Other types of studies incorporate environmental impacts, primarily air pollution, but sometimes also noise and water pollution, and various categories of land use impacts. Some studies have only considered external costs.

CBA are widely used within the transportation sector. CBA of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences and needs among population groups with a low ability to pay. It has emerged as one of the most used tools in deciding the viability of proposed infrastructure projects. The predictions about the impact of such projects are often problematic perspective. The growth in road traffic to channelling needs for transportation into more environmentally friendly modes of travel than the private car transport. The transport modelling tools used in order to estimate positive as well as negative impacts.

U.K Department of Transport used CBA to evaluate highway proposal. Compare construction and maintenance costs against the benefits such as time savings, fuel vehicle operating costs and accident savings. It does not vale environmental loss, air pollution, wildlife, etc. (Willis, 1998). Decision-makers have to balance the monetary benefits of highway scheme with descriptive assessments of physical impact.

The Artistry Of Indian Painting Cultural Studies Essay

Indian painting is one of the oldest arts in the world from about the 3rd millennium BC to present period. The society the Indian painting reproduce particular religious, political and cultural developments.

Indian art has its unique name in the history of arts. Indian art which has been challenged its stage from down to the top of winning the stage of philosophy under the visual type in the history of indian art.

Indian art has challanging in the years in thought providing in the Indian artist in the reason for the innovation of the creations in the way of visual abstracts ideas and the cultured thing in the land. Every religions and the system giving its own nuances in the metphor and the simiarly in the rich organisation in wild imagin in the humaniation in the way of the belives and the character people in the way of one ideal way of the way of life to be delevers the interprted art.

The following are the list of style of art in India.




Kalam kari

Cave paintings






Puppetry is the form of theatre performance which involve in the handling of the puppets. It is very very old and it assumed to have originate 30,000 years BC. Puppets have been used while in the first times to conscious and to communicate the ideas and for the needs of the human society. Some historians claim that they pre date artist in the theatres. There is a confirmation that they were use in the Egypt as before time as 2000 BC.

Warli :

The Warli is an Indian deliberate people. These citizen people were be alive in the place of taukas in Thne,Nasik , And in Dhule distrct in the place of Maharashtra, And also in the Valsad Distict in the state of Gujarat. And the union territory of Dadra ,Nagar Haveli and also the Daaman and the Diue. They also have their entity way of life. The society and nation is the part of the mutual Hindu society.The Warlis people always speak an vocal Varli foreign languge. It is belongng to the southrn region of indo Aryans language and mix Sanskrit, Marathi and Gujarati language. Its ahead of 2500 or 3000 BC. Their pitch shelter of Bhimbetka, in Madhya Pradesh.

Madubani :

Madhubani is one of the way of the Indian painting. Experienced in the Mithila district of the Bihar state in India and janakpur in Nepal. practice states that this way of the painting originate at the moment of the Ramayana. When the King Janak specially made his artist to do paintings at the moment of the wedding of his offspring Sita to the Lord Ram.

Kalam kari :

Kalamkari is the kind of the hand decorated or block printed cotton fabric, created in the part of the India. The statement kalam kari is resulting from the Persian language kalam (ballpoint and kari (craftmanship), The sense drawing with a ballpoint. The craft complete at Machilipatnam in the Andhra Pradesh

Cave painting:

Cave paintings are painting on cave stockade in the period is used particularly for those dating to the primitive times. The most basic known indian cave in paintings date to the Aurignacian. Some of the cave painting are 32,000 years ago. The cause of paleolithic cave paintings is not recognized. The proof suggest that they were not simply garland of the living areas. while the cave in the which they have been establish do not have symbols of the unending tenancy. Also they are frequently in the areas of the caves that are not simply access. a few of the theory are grip that they may have been a way of the communicate with others. Even as other theory are assign them a spiritual or official purpose.

Miniature :

However at some point in in the 11th and in the 12th century. The concept of the illustrate palm sheet manuscript came into living being. manuscript are very little in a range. Therefore the image was complete in the lesser in volume. This want of the model very small paintings was go toward into the system of living. miniature paintings was also set single on the paper, ivory panel, timber tables and leather, granite and the cloth and walls. A little of the sole Miniature paintings are include in the illustrate manuscript .The Jains and the Buddhists blossoming of the Mughal, Rajput and in the Deccan miniatures.The theme used from the Indian epics like the Ramayana, Mahabharata, as well as the ragas of the Indian classical music. The core of the miniature painting fabrication in the Rajasthan.

Pahari :

Pahari painting truthful sense of the painting is from the rocky of the region, pahar means the mountains in Hindi. It is an umbrella term used for a form of the Indian painting. originate from the Hill kingdom of the North India, during 17th-19th century. particularly Basohli,and the Mankot mainly Nurpu and Garhwal, and was completed regularly in the miniature style of figure

Pattachitra :

Pattachitra is the conventional picture of the Odisha. An eastern situation of the India. These painting are base on the Hindu myths and mainly more brilliant by the Vaishnava cult. Every colours were use in the Paintings are naturals and paintings are made completely by the old conventional way by the Chtrakaras that is by the Odia Painter. Pattachitra method of the work of art is one of the oldest and the majority popular art forms of the Orissa. The name Pattachitra has been evolve from the Sanskrit language patta. The intelligence canvas and chitra significance picture. Pattachitra is a painting made on canvas, And it is obvious by the rich colourful request. The creative motif and design and depiction of the simple theme frequently factual in description. The civilization of the pattachitra work of art are extra than the thousand existence old.


Kerala mural paintings are the frescos depict in the myths and the tradition. Which are drained on the walls of the temples and churches in the South India. Mainly in the state of Kerala. Early temple, churches and place in the Kerala. South India,s display the wealthy ritual of the mural paintings in mostly date back between in the 9th to 12th centuries

Genres of Indian painting :


Miniature painting

Eastern Indian painting

Western Indian painting

Malwa, Deccan and Jaunpur schools of painting

Mughal painting

Rajput painting

Mysore painting

Tanjore painting

Madhubani painting


Bengal school

Modern Indian Painting


The Famous Indian artists:

Raja ravi vareman Abindranaeth tagore Nandhlal bose Jameini Roy Amritha sheragill N.S.Bendrae MF.Hussaein S.H..Raazae Franciss newaton soueuza Ganesh Pyhne

The artists which I going to explain is M.F Husain

Maqbool Fida Husain was called as an MF Husan was born on September 17th 1915 in the place of Pandharpur Maharashtra in India. Husains mother Zunaib die in his childhood and his father Fida had remarried and he moved to the new place called Indore.In there hussain went to the school. Then he moved to the Mumbai at the age 20. When husain was admit to the JJ.School which it related to the Arts.

When he was an premature age husain learn the art about the calligraphy and practiced Kulfickhat with the numerical form. Husain also learn to write poems while husain stay with his uncle in madrasa in the place of Baroda. Husain kept a art with him from first to last his life. Hussain early education was mechanical but he loved to draw was the plain even at this point. Every time when he gets the chance hussain would band his art stuff in his cycle and drive to the nearby countryside near by in Indore to paint. In the backdrop in the year 1937 hussain went to Bombay resolute to become a artiste. Hussain hardly work and he gets money and lived in a inexpensive room in a by path occupied by pimps and prostitutes. At first he makes himself as an painter in the cinema boardings. He paint in the greatest nimbleness suspended on scaffold at times in the center of travels. Hussain marry on 1941. During in hussain before time days in Mumbai hussain earn money from his painting in cinema Boarding. one of the frequently told stories about hussain,s early period.

He was notice for the record on 1947. when hussain win a reward in the yearly show in the mumbai Art Society foundation. consequently hussain was invite by Souza to join in Progressive Artist Groups. The grand pact of testing in the premature years lead to some extraordinary works. In 1955 hussain was the one of the best most important artist in India and he was awarded for the Padma Shri. Hussain was a particular invite next to the Pablo Picasso in Sao Paulo Biennial in the year 1971. Beside with numerous alone exhibition hussain had main retrospectives in Mumbai in 1969. in kolkatta in the year 1973 and in the year Delhi in 1978.

Hussain had participate in a lot of global show. Which take in modern indian art. In the royal school of the Arts in London in the year of 1982. Almost six Indian painter Take art show in London in 1985. Current Indian latest Painting in hirschom Museum in the Washington in the year 1986 and modern Indian Art, Grey Art portico in New York 1986. In the year 1967 hussain won an Golden bear in the global Film fair in the city of berlin for documentary all the way through the eyes of a artist and hussain made numerous short films ever since then.

He was award the Padma bhushan in the year 1973. The Padma Vibhushan award win in 1989. And he chosen to the Rajya Sabha in the year 1986.which One of the best compelling artist in India . He is famous for his absolute appreciative of the human circumstances and his fast painting. Long before days development of the speech he was overtake by risky foray into installation and presentation art. Hussain experiments with fresh form of art both surprising and original. He has studio in numerous towns in all around the India but his life mostly in Bombay.

S. Prasad (UG) vfx First year ID 09ba01032.

Western Art

Western art paintings are one of the art which belongs to the European continents . Hand printed history of the western arts are starts with the earliest focal point east, olden Egypt and olden Aegean civilization and the time from 3rd million BC. Similar with the culture, Art is common for the culture all over world. Where ever the people leaving their evidence like carving and artifacts and large standing stone peace. However the consistent rule of pattern the development of europen becomes only with the olden Greece and changed by the romens and took with the empire across the Europe and north Africa and centre east countries.

The manipulate of the classical time wanted through the next time of 2 thousand years, Looks like different parts of the medieval period to reenaisssance . The early art historian viewed during the baroque olden period to displays in a filtered form of classican to re born in the post-modernism.

The another main power of western art have be Christianity. The charge of the church, architech and sculpting gives the most stuffs of the work to the artist for about 1401 years,Currently from 330 ad to about 1670 ad. The history of the temple was most thing in the history of the western art, in this period.

Secularism has involve in western art in the classical period of art. But most of the art are in above 200 years been manufacture without the evidence to religion. In this with no particular idea at all. In another hand western art has often influence by the politics in another hand of state of the artist.

Western art is placed in the no of stylish period of years. But historic overlaap on different stylish things in the areas. Mainly the period is in classic, byzan, and Medivel renaissan and modern. Every thing in this are sub divided in it.

The following are the list of western artist

1 Jess Collins Aug 6th 1923 – 2004

Jess is one of the visual artist in us. In the year 1953 in the place of San Francisco, Collins also with Duncan and with Jacobus open the Ubu show.

2 Jim dine born June 16th in the year of 1935

Jim dine was born in the place of Cincinnati. Dine initialy earn value in the ability world with his actions. In the year of 1962 jim art work was incorporated in modern Art shows in us. In the year of 1984 Art Center in the place of Minnesoota. Showed his art work as Dine theme. In the year of 2004 in the global show of the Art in Washiington prepared the show Drawings of Dine.

3 John heart field 19 Jun 1891 — 26 Apr 1968

He was born in the placeof Helmut in german near berllin. His photomoontages was Adolf Hittler and the Nazzis. He frequently job with photomoontage. Using the in-between to make pictures made weird supremacy speech .In the year of 1935 his attempt noble well done die grease is Alle. It is in English is Hurrray the grease is vanished. It was in print on the 1st page of the AIZ in 1935.

4 Lee Krasner Oct 27 1908 – Jun 19 in the year of 1984

lee was born in the place of Brooklyn near the city of New York. In the year 1940 Lee in progress give you an idea about her works with the american theoretical artist. Lee regularly cut separately her personal drawing and painting to make collage.The Museum of recent painting detained a display showing lees works. Krasner is 1 of the single four women artist to have a demonstration show at the Moma.

5 Ray Johnson Ray Edward Johnson 1927- 1995

Ray was born in the place of detroit on Oct 16 in the year of 1927. Ray is measured the beginning Father Mail Art. Ray first collage is mostly theoretical works. Ray scratch separately a lot of of his before time collages and use wreckage in later on workings. Ray is besides identified as New Yorks the majority well-known unknown artist.

6 Johnathan Talbot Born on Nov 14th in the year of 1939

The maker of an original collage method that eliminnate fluid adhesive from the patchwork meeting method .Finest recognized for his collages and the multi dimention collage construction fit as jonathan oil water colours.

7 Pablo Picasso born in the place of Malaga in Spain on 25th of Oct in the year of 1881.

Picasso died, At the age of 91 and his graveyad in France. specialize in work of art. sculpt, printcreation, earthenware and patchwork.

8 Henri matisse 1869 to1954 Was born in the place of Cambresis in the country of France.

Henri died at the age of 84 in the place of Maritimes .Henri primary in progress work of art in 1889. when matisse suffer from the appendicitis. Henri primary single display was at Vollard portico in the year of 1904.

9 George Braque 1882-1963

George was born in 1882 in the place of Argentueil . George was talent in work of art drawing, print creation and sculpt. George died in the year of 31st in the month of Aug in the year 1963.

10 Peter blake was born in the 25th June 1932.

Peter talented in bang art which it is a latest type of work of art. Peter art integrated descriptions from the adds. melody hall activity, and wrestling frequently together with collaged fundamentals. Peter art of bang music set brings his world renowed celebrity. In the balcony (1955-58) is a important before time work and still now stands one of the iconic part of Britan Art.

11 Vikki Alexander born in the year of Jan 30th at 1959 born in the county of Canada

Vikki talented in collage sketch, taking pictures and fitting. Vikki was born in the place of Victoria in the country British Columbia. Vikki is recognized for her big scale photo mural installation media works that joined photo with sculpt stuff.

Comparison of two artists :

I am going to compare Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse

About Pablo Picasso :

Pablo was born in the city of Malaga in the country of Spain in the month of 25th Oct 1881. Pablo was died in the age 91 and his grave ward is in France. Pablo was talented in work of art, sculpt, print creation, stoneware and collage. Pablo Picasso was learned and graduate in the work of art at the Madrid. Pablo was top recognized for co beginning cubist progress. Pablo primary method of work of art is practical but altered with his individual unusual theory, technique and thoughts. The entire amount of art works pablo shaped which was likely at 50,000 comprise 1,885 art of work 1,228 sculpture 2,880 stoneware, almost 12,000 art of work, a lot of thousands of print. His art of work Garcon la has been sell for 104 million $. one more art of work by Pablo Dora Maur au Chat has been sold for 95.2 million $.

About Henri Matisse :

Henri was born in the place of Le Cateau in the country of France. Henri was died age of 84 in the place of alpes. Heri primary in progress his work of art in the year of 1889. Henri was distress from the appendiicitis. Henri 1st single show was in Vollard show in the year of 1904. Henri friends prepared and finance the Acadamic Mates in the place of Paris. A personal and non marketable school .which he instruct little artists. It operate from the year of the 1907 to 1911. Henri recognized a museum fanatical to his job in the year of 1952. in his home town city. The primary work of art of henri acquire by a community album was motionless Life of the Geraniumsin the year of 1910. In the year of 2002 Henri sculpt, recline naked Dawn. sold for the US dollar of 9.2 million . It is a evidence of a sculpt by the performer.Plum Blossoms in the year of 1948 art of work done Henri was sold on Sept 8th in the year of 2005 for the Museum of current Art by Henry.

Comparison :

Picasso work of art demoisellles Aveignoen is one of the beautiful part of work and one of the method such type of image is painted in a extremely characteristic of Picasso. The performer finished the image in the first previous centuery in the year of 1907. He use the oil on the canvaes usually pablo is recognized for inexplicably indistinct records in the art of work of that Les avignoen is an huge instance. The image is execution in the show of current Art of work in the place of New York.

The next art of work is that i like to talk about is henri the olive row. This image was drawn before two years before Pablo in the year of 1905. now similar to Picasso. Henri used oil on the canvaes art of picture. The different method of the art is classic in the artist. At this end the picture is execution in Statens Museaum in the country of Denmark.

Hanri live in the comparable stop of Pabilo. Hanri be born in the country of France in the year of 1869.Twelve years earlier than Pabilo. But Hanri start work of art slightly behind. Handri earlier painting which hanri picture in age 28.Hanri mainly art is mainly example of the expressioniosm. Though a number of of his facility are careful to transmit to another faction. Refferred to the movement of fauevism.

Basically, Henri favored brilliant colors mix within one painting. However the method of representation that henri art of work be different from the method in landscape of village side art of work. Though portrait is in dark repetitive. The village side is brilliant and vibrant.

Henri use the majority of the occasion uses solid, cruel stroke. from time to time still too large, The artist use broad stroke to paint extremely slim things. example seam on the blouse are distant too broad. Such examples are have been noticed for the duration of the art. one more exceptional quality of the art is the difference. Alter from burn to weak from dull to bright are too pointed, and consequently too noticeable. fundamentally i would explain the image even careless. The colors of the art are contentious in some stain. The hair which he dark as blue and the nose is in a greaved green. In beginning fleeting look the combination of colors stroke looks like ungainly but in realism at the back great ability and originality cloak.

Conclusion :

The two art discuss on top of are a like in more than a few individuality. Explicitly the both picture show the substance in the indistinct mannear. Both the art look a number of slovenly. colors are used unsuitably .The great difference between these art of work is contain the existence of capacity. While Picasso persistently avoid bountiful relief to the women means of soft darken . Henri sketch darker outline earlier to limits. Some period constant too dim and solid. An additional main variation in method is practice of art of work. Henri stroke are bright and broad and change in shade are evident. While Picasso prefer smoother insignia and fill huge part of the art with the similar paint. The earlier but not the smallest sum variation is the amount of correct size used in the image. Henri found actuality but Picasso try to handbrake it with weird outline.

S. Prasad

(UG) vfx

1st year

ID: 09BA01032

2nd batch.

Connotations Of Animal Words In English And Chinese Languages Essay

Abstract This paper aims to study the characteristics of different types of animal words in English and Chinese. Because of the close relation between human beings and animals, animal words have been given rich connotations. However, due to the differences of customs, living environments and cultural backgrounds of various nationalities, each nationality has its own understanding about animal words. According to their features, this paper divides animal words into three categories¼Œone is same animal words, similar connotations, one is same animal words, different connotations, another is different animal words, similar connotations. What’s more, it is to further analyze the translation strategy for each group of animal words and find out a rule for the translation of animal words.

Key Words intercultural communication; animal words; difference; connotation; translation strategy

1. Introduction

Animal words take over a large amount in English and Chinese. As the result, it is significant to master different meanings of animal words in intercultural communication.

1.1 Research Background

With the rapid development of the global world, people have more and more chances to communicate with foreigners. Intercultural communication has become more and more important. It is a common phenomenon in our daily life, which can occur anytime and anywhere just between two people from different countries. Due to the differences of cultures and social backgrounds between the countries, people have diverse understandings toward a same word. A successful intercultural communication demands exact meaning and accurate expression.

The animal is closely related to the human beings. In the daily life, people will use large numbers of animal words to express the feelings or describe some situations. Animal words contain large cultural information. As two of the most widely used languages, both Chinese and English are full of animal words which have accumulated abundant connotations as the time passed by. To know the right connotation of an animal word between English and Chinese, we can avoid making mistakes in the process of translation, and avoid misunderstandings in intercultural communication as well.

1.2 Purpose of the Research

As L•A•Samovar said¼š”It is more accurate to say people possess meaning and that words elicit these meanings. We can have different meanings for the same word. All people¼Œdrawing on their backgrounds, decide what a word means(L•A•Samovar¼Œ1995¼š152).” So based on different cultural background, animal words have different connotations. While in intercultural communication, it’s necessary to understand the connotations of animal words.

Meanwhile, the translation is one of the most important activities on intercultural communication. Therefore, in this thesis, the writer wants to study the difference connotations of animal words in English and Chinese and to find out a translation rule for different kinds of animal words.

1.3 Structure of the Paper

The thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter includes the research background, purpose of the study and the organization of this thesis. In the second chapter, literature review aims at presenting the previous investigations of animal word, which includes the achievements and limitations of past studies of animal words. Then the third chapter discusses the similarities and differences of animal words in English and Chinese. In this chapter, the writer divides animal words into three different categories. The fourth chapter finds out the suitable translation strategies for each kind of animal words. The last chapter draws a conclusion and points out the limitations of the research¼Ž

2. Literature Review

The history of intercultural communication maybe is as long as the history of human life. The bargains of merchants along the silk road during the Tang Dynasty in China and the immigration of thousands upon thousands of “gold-diggers” to north America are the instances of intercultural communication(宋莉¼Œ2011¼š5). But actually, the systemic study of intercultural communication just started in the United States in the 1950s. Intercultural communication is related to linguistics¼Œpsychology¼Œpraxiology¼Œsociology, philosophy and so on. In addition, intercultural communication plays a major role in tourists, overseas studies, business and immigrants.

The scholars at home have been done many investigations of animal words in English and Chinese from various dimensions. Such as Liao Guangrong (å»-光蓉¼Œ2000) pays more attention to the cultural connotation of the animal word itself. Liu Yingjie(刘英杰¼Œ2006) focuses on the linguistics to analyze animal words. The thesis A Comparative Cognitive Analysis of Metaphors in English and Chinese Animal Terms (Di Feng, 2006) studies the animal terms from the stand point of metaphors. He focused on proving the effect of metaphorical competence development to the language enhancement and cultural studying through the study of contemporary metaphor theories and the relationship between the animal terms and cultural. Zhou Datian(2007) analyzes the reasons that cause the different images of animal words in English and Chinese. He points out that these differences are influenced by four features. They are the culture, literary quotations about animal words, people’s customs and the mode of production, the sports and entertainment. Meanwhile, he thinks that animal words represent the national characteristic. If we understand and use animal words correctly, we can study and comprehend these two languages better.

By reviewing the previous researches in animal words, the author finds that animal words studies on the perspective of the intercultural communication are limited¼ŽEven there is no paper systematically analyzing the major translations methods of different kinds of animal words that base on intercultural communication.

3. The Similar and Different Connotations of Animal Words in English and Chinese

If people don’t understand the cultural background of the sentences, it is hard to know the true meaning the speaker wants to express while in intercultural communication. For example, here is a dialogue about the connotation of an animal word. A asks B whether he is ready for the math exam tomorrow. Then B answers that he has got his rabbit’s foot right here. In this dialogue, the rabbit’s foot shares the same meaning of good luck and success. If we don’t know this background, we would not continue the talking. So it is worthy of studying the similarities and differences of the connotation of animal words so as to avoid the embarrassment in intercultural communication.

3.1 Same Animal Words, Similar Connotations

Most animal words contain abundant connotations. However, because of animals’ nature and traits, they often share the same meaning. The connotation of bull in English and Chinese are similar in accordance with the bad temper of bull. To refer to a person who is stubborn, Chinese and English share some similar expressions. In English, people say “Sometimes you can be so bull-headed!” While in Chinese, people usually say “牛脾气”. And the image of the bee which is busy gathering honey is well-known by people, so we use the bee to praise the industrious and hardworking person both in English and Chinese, e.g. “He is as busy as a bee.”

In addition, living in the similar environment, though people from different culture background, they would share similar understanding about a same animal. Take fox as an example, when the fox refers to a person, it means that the man is cunning or sly. According to Oxford Dictionary, “pig” is “Domestic or wild animal with short legs, cloven hooves and a broad blunt snout (Oxford, 1108).” That is the denotation of “pig”. Actually the imaginary and metaphorical expressions of “pig” in English and Chinese are alike as well. They both connotes the images of fat, foolish and greedy. In Chinese, “èƒ-å¾-像头猪”¼Œ”人头猪脑”¼Œ”猪ç‹-不如”¼Œ”蠢猪”are gross words to scold people. In English, there are saying like “as fat as a pig” , “He makes a pig of himself (ä»-狼吞虎咽) ” or “He has been a pig about money(ä»-对钱贪å¾-æ- åŽŒ)”.

There are others sharing similar connotation, for instance, “lock the stable door after the horse has been stolen (马后炮)”; “fish in troubled waters (浑水摸鱼)”; “It’s a good horse that never stumbles(好马不失蹄)” . In short, when in intercultural communication, the similarity of connotative meanings of animal words in English and Chinese can help people make less misunderstanding as possible.

3.2 Same Animal Words, Different Connotations

In most cases, the animal word stands for different images in different cultures. Here the author wants to introduce some typical animal words which are remarkably different in different cultures..

3.2.1 Fish(é±¼)

Britain is an island country. The fishery and seafaring are fully developed and they mean a lot to Britain. Thus, many sayings are created according to the sea. For example, British will use “a fine kettle of fish” to express the things are in the mess or farfetched. “Fish in the air” is equal to the Chinese phrase “水中捞月”. “To have other fish to fry” means people have other things to deal with. About the fish in English ,it is also a derogatory word reflected to the bad person, like “a poor fish(可怜虫)”; “a loose fish(生活放荡的女人)”; “a cold fish (冷漠的人)”.

It is very difficult to know the exact meaning without a well understanding about the English culture. So does the Chinese. The fish has the same pronunciation as “ä½™”, so the fish is the symbol of abundance in Chinese. In Spring Festival, people would like to cook a fish as a dish to symbolize a good luck in the next year(the author’s translation) (祝君¼Œ2003¼š17、18). It is a special tradition of China which is unique over the world. Many foreigners hear little of it.

3.2.2 Dog(ç‹-)

Dog shares the same denotation in both English and Chinese. But Chinese and English-speaking countries have different attitudes toward dog. To talk about the connotation, these two languages are greatly diverse.

In English-spoken countries, people do not just keep dogs for hunting or farming, but also treat them as fellows. The dog always shows a lovely and loyal image in English. By this reason, English people keep taking the dog as human’s faithful friend. Here are some expressions of dog : “a lucky dog(幸运儿)”, “a clever dog (聪明的人)”, “a top dog (重要人物)”, “every dog has its days¼Ž(每个人都有å¾-意æ-¶)”.

Opposite to English, when to refer a person of dog, it usually means something bad in Chinese. For instance, the myth “ç‹-咬吕洞宾¼Œä¸è¯†å¥½äººå¿ƒ” means mistaking a good person as bad guy. Most Chinese phrases about “ç‹-“are associated with derogatory connotations. It is reflected on the sayings like “ç‹-改不了吃屎”, “ç‹-急跳墙”, “ç‹-ä»-人势”¼Œ”ä¸å®¶ä¹‹çŠ¬”¼Œ”ç‹-眼看人低”¼Œ”ç‹-嘴吐不出象牙”. While Chinese say “someone like a dog” or “ç‹-杂獔, they are criticizing a person. No Chinese people would like to be called as a dog. Thus we must take special care while translating from English to Chinese.

3.2.3 Dragon(é¾™)

Dragon is of commentary meaning in Chinese. According to the dictionary, “dragon” is a heroic animal of the ancient Chinese legend, the ancient symbol of the emperor (the author’s translation) (现代汉语词典¼Œ816). Dragon is an imaginary animal in China. In Chinese culture “dragon” occupies a prominent position as it symbolizes auspiciousness, wealth, future and power. We Chinese people call ourselves as descendants of dragon(龙的传人). Parents hope their children can be useful and have a bright future like a dragon or a phoenix when they grow up. Ancient people also believed that the dragon was the king of the sea¼Œwas an immortal. Therefore the dragon is always associated with water and heavens.

On the contrary, dragon is a derogatory term in English. Though “é¾™” and “dragon” are both an imaginary animal in China and western countries, they have different appearances. According to the dictionary, the dragon is “a mythical monster like a giant reptile. In European tradition the dragon is typically fire-breathing and tends to symbolize chaos or evil (The New Oxford Dictionary of English.2001).” Dragon is also considered to be a fierce person, esp. a woman. So obviously, the translator can’t translate the dragon word directly from Chinese to English. It will make English people think that it is a curse.

3.3 Different Animal Words, Similar Connotations

By the commonness of social lives and customs in China and English-speaking countries, people may use different animal words to represent similar connotations, especially in the idioms.

For instance, “害群之马” has the same meaning of “the black sheep of the family(一家中的黑羊)”; “爱屋及乌” can be regarded as “love me love my dog”; English people would like to say “like a rat in the hole” to describe a person who is sure to win or troubles are easily to save. But in Chinese ,we prefer to employ “瓮中抓é³-“; To refer to “hypocritical”, in Chinese it would use “猫哭老鼠“. In English it would use “the crocodile tears(鳄鱼的眼泪)”; “Sell a pig in a poke” has the same meaning as “挂羊头å-ç‹-肉”.

There is one more typical examination of this sort.


Because of the difference of farming practices, horse and ox play the same role in China and Britain. They are the important instruments for farming, so horse and ox share some similarities in these two counties, even in other western counties. To refer to “strong”, in Chinese there are expressions like “力å¤å¦‚牛”、”壮å¾-像头牛”. In English, they are equal to “as strong as a horse”. “Hardworking without complain”, in Chinese, these person will be called “老黄牛”(ç½-小鹰¼Œ2010¼š2). While in English, they will be said as “work like a horse” or “a willing horse”. In other aspect, the man who tells lies would be called “吹牛”、”牛皮”. And he would be called “talk horse” in English.

4. The Translation of Animal Words in English and Chinese

According to Columbia Encyclopedia, “Translation is the art of recomposing a work in another language without losing its original flavor (Columbia, qtd. in任泉清,2006:40).” Our famous scholar Yan Fu defined the standards of the translation as “faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance”. Generally speaking, it is difficult for translators to translate a word individually without a sentence or a text. They should maintain the right meaning of the source language, and also follow the style of the original texts to keep the coherence of the source texts and the target texts. “Translation is often compared to a bridge, which is not just between the source text and the target text but between the author of original text and the reader of the target text(任泉清,2006:40 41).” The close relation between language and culture determines the close ties of translation and culture. Translation is not just about individual words. The cultural backgrounds and knowledge also play a major role in translation and restrict it. Therefore¼Œtranslation is one of intercultural communication activities. The words translation constructs the foundation of intercultural communication(the author’s translation) (祝君,2003¼š21).

4.1 The Translation Strategy for animal words Sharing Similar Connotation

Because the similar understanding of the same animal words in English and Chinese, the reader can easily get the right meaning of the words without the translators’ explanation. These animal words can be translated into other language directly. In other words, translators can use literal translation on animal words which share the same denotations or the similar connotation.

“Literal translation refers to translate a sentence originally, keeping the original forms, including construction of sentences, meaning of the original words and metaphor of the original and so on. It can not only reproduce the meaning and frame of language, but also keep its vivid image figure of speech and novel and unique expressive ways so that the readers can comprehend the origin’s literal grace(佚名, 2011).”

Here are some examples of using literal translation. There is an English sayings “like water off a duck’s back” to describe a phenomena that the water couldn’t stay in the duck’s back and all slide off without any trail. It is used to criticize a person whom the suggestions have no effect on. Likewise, there is a same idiom in Chinese which has the same connotation — “水过鸭背”. Thus, translators can use literal translation on this saying. Because the image of the rat is timid and disgusting both in English and Chinese, the phrases “A lion at home¼Œa mouse a broad” and “A rat crossing the street is chased by a11” can be directly translated to “在家如狮子¼Œåœ¨å¤-像老鼠” and “老鼠过è¡-人人å-Šæ‰“”. There are others animal words have similar connotations like “black horse(黑马)”, “as stupid as an ass(笨å¾-像头驴)” and “do not be a goose(别当呆头鹅)”. The literal translation can not only express the same connotations of animal words, but also can remain the language style of the source text better.

4.2 The Translation Strategy for Animal Words Sharing Diverse Connotation

It is a good choice to use the free translation to interpret animal words which have same denotations but different connotations in English and Chinese. Only to abandon the denotations can we guarantee that the cultural meaning would be accurately transferred. To take the typical example –dragon. As we all know, dragon has a completely opposite images in Chinese and English. So, a Chinese phrase “望子成龙” can not be translated literally into “expect one’s son to become a dragon”. In order to avoid misunderstanding, the better translation is “to expect one’s son to become useful”. Out of such consideration,”亚洲四小龙” is properly interpreted as “the four tigers of Asia”¼ŽBut in recent years, with the widespread of Chinese Dragon Culture, some scholars put forward that translator can translate “é¾™” to “Loong” to reserve the Chinese cultural characteristic(杨淑侠¼Œ2008¼š2).

In English, it has an acclaim like “you are a lucky dog”. But because of the different images of “dog” in English and Chinese, it will be considered as a curse when is translated to “你是一条聪明的ç‹-“. If the connotations of one animal word is dissimilar even inconsistent in two languages, the better translation strategy is only to keep the connotation, in other words, to use the free translation. Thus, the sentence “you are a lucky dog” should be translated into “你很聪明”.

4.3 The Translation Strategy for Different Animal Words Sharing Similar Connotation

On the basis of the analysis above, there exists a situation in which different animal words share the similar connotations in English and Chinese. This type of animal words can be substituted by each other. While translating, the translator just needs to find the matched animal words or some idioms to replace it. These are some translation instances from English to Chinese. As the analysis above, the connotations of the “lion” and “tiger” are similar. As the result, “to place oneself in a lion’s mouth” can be translated to “置身虎穴”. Meanwhile, we would better translate the English idiom “kill the goose that laid the golden eggs” to “杀鸡å-卵” rather than “杀鹅å-卵”. Beside, it seems no mistake to translate the phrase “better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion” to “宁为犬é¦-,不作狮尾”. But the Chinese may don’t understand the connotation of this translation. In addition, a Chinese saying “宁为鸡头¼Œå‹¿ä¸ºå‡¤å°¾” shares the similar meaning with this phrase. Alternatively, we could use “宁为鸡头¼Œå‹¿ä¸ºå‡¤å°¾” to replace the translation of “宁为犬é¦-,不作狮尾” in this phrase. The English “to wake a sleeping wolf” and the Chinese “打草惊蛇” both express the inadvertently action making the other’s awareness and prevention. In this way, these two phrases can interconvert while translating.

The purpose of translation is to maintain the cultural meanings of the source texts. It is not suitable to use literal translation or free translation to translate animal words which different ones stand for similar connotation. It is easily to confuse and mislead the readers. The author thinks that the best translation strategy for these animal words is to use the similar connotation words of the target language to substitute the original animal word in source text. It is better to maintain the connotation and the language characteristic of source text as well.

5. Conclusion

Animal words contain lots of connotations which are relied on people’s living environment, religion and the animal’s appearances. Since the close relation between human being and animals, and the various connotations of animal words in English and Chinese, it is really necessary to know the exact meaning of animal words to guarantee intercultural communication go on smoothly. The translation is one important intercultural communication activity. After analyzing animal words connotations, the writer finds that animal words can be divided into three categories according to their own connotation feature. Each group of animal words is suitable for one translation strategy. Translation in English and Chinese, translators can use the literal translation for the same animal words referring to similar meaning, and use the free translation for same animal words referring to different meaning. In addition, translators can use the same meaning animal words to replace when different words share similar meaning. But this mode is not stationary, the translators must be flexible, they should find the right connotation in the source text based on the writer’s intention. A successful translation is to express the deep meaning of the source texts through analyzing the whole texts, instead of studying on the surface.

By the limited scope of knowledge of the author and insufficient time, this paper just talks about a minimal part of the study of animal words and refers to only three major translation strategies. There are more animal words which cannot be listed and discussed here one by one. But the author hopes this thesis can be helpful for the further research of animal words.

The James Bulger Case Criminology Essay

Both Attard and introduce the case by saying that on the 12th of February, Denise Bulger took her son, Jamie, to her local shopping centre in Bootle,Liverpool at around 3.30 p.m. Nine minutes later she realised that her son was not next to her anymore and started to look for him. She went to security , police were called on the spot and together they watched CCTV cameras of the shopping centre to try and determine what happened to the boy. Jamie was seen leaving the premises alongside two other boys and the police thought little of it as no one could have ever made out the horrific events that followed so they set out to search for him and the two boys. A couple of days later , some children were playing next to a train railway and saw what they thought was a doll or something similar. When they got close to the presumed doll , they saw the most haunting image one could imagine ; a toddler’s body cut in half.Police were again called on the spot and initial indications showed that the body belonged to Jamie Bulger.After this horrendous find , police deepened its investigation even using the media as a mean to get to the bottom of all of it with the children seen accompanying him in the tape being the prime suspects. A tip came in on who the boys might be, and two boys both aged 10 ;Jon Venables and Robert Thompson (their identity was only revealed after the sentencing) were brought in for questioning. Both boys were sent to court and tried with the murder of Jamie Bulger. The trial began in November of 1993, and the horrific events of this macabre murder were revealed to shock not just the nation but the whole world. After leaving the premises together with Jamie Bulger , Jon Venables and Robert Thompson took him on a 2.5 mile trip beating him along the way until they reached the railway. Once there, Jamie was further beaten, thrown stones and paint at, and had his trousers and shoes removed implying perhaps a sexual assault (never proven.)In addition to this, Jamie was hit with an iron rod for around 30 times , leading to his death. Afterwards, the boys put Jamie on the railway fully knowing that a train would come soon to try and conceal their terrible actions by perhaps implying that Jamie would have walked there on his own, fell , and hit by a train. This shows the full wittiness of the boys and that they knew exactly what they were up to. Both Jon Venables and Robert Thompson were found guilty and sent to at least 8 years imprisonment in a detention centre.

B)Background Of Case

The forensic evidence presented in James Bulger’s case proved to be very strong and lead to the boys being found guilty beyond any reasonable doubt. Forensic scientists such as Graham Jackson , Andy Mulley and Philip Rydeard managed to conclude that blood found on the suspects matched that of the victim’s but not just this , Rydeard also managed to prove that the shoe characteristics of one of the boys was found on the victim. A number of paint-marks were found both on the victim’s and the suspects’ clothes. These marks , light-blue in colour , established that this paint was used during or before the murder. This helped to further strengthen the evidence brought forward against Jon Venables and Robert Thompson.

The number of blows that James suffered from the boys were so numerous that no forensic scientist was able to determine which blow was the fatal one.

Videotape recordings of the boys’ interrogations were shown in court as evidence by the prosecution. A pathologist , Alan Williams, utilised in the case concluded that James Bulger’s foreskin had been manipulated with. Thus , this might imply that there was a sexual element in the murder , a notion that was never proven as the evidence was inconclusive. This evidence was perhaps the weakest presented in court against the young defendants.

In addition to this , the shopping centre’s CCTV tapes , the numerous weapons such as 27 bricks , stones and the 22lb iron rod were all presented in court to further remove all possibilities of the boys’ innocence.

38 witnesses also took the stand all saying that they saw Bulger accompanying Venables and Thompson on Bulger’s fatal journey to the railway.A woman testified that she even stopped them and was going to take Bulger to the police station herself but withdrew from doing so and trusted the boys with the quest , little knowing what they were up to.

The evidence presented in the case is both strong and unique , the blood found on the victim was matched with that of the suspect, the paint was also equal on both the victim and the suspects , whilst the shoeprint of one of the suspects was found on the victim’s body.In addition to this , CCTV cameras played a key role in this case as they showed the boys leaving the shopping premises whilst other CCTV cameras of premises leading to the railway also showed Bulger being accompanied by Venables and Thompson. .


After the suspects were brought in for questioning, the police started to suspect that the involvement of Venables and Thompson in the murder was almost certain , yet they had to prove this and the fact that the suspects were both 10 years old did not help them all. Since the boys were under the age of 14 , a specific set of questions were asked by the police so that they can determine whether the suspects knew right from wrong and this would help to destroy the notion of “doli incapax” in court. The boys differ in their reaction to interrogation, Venables is terrified of the idea of going to prison , Thompson on the other hand , keeps his composure and stays cool despite fully knowing the consequences.They both start to slowly give details of the case with Venables stating that he was at the area but never at the shopping centre , Thompson on the other hand gives a vivid description of Bulger including the outfit Bulger was wearing the day of the murder.The police finally notice that Thompson can not conceal his nervousness whenever Bulger is mentioned until finally he breaks and admits that they had taken him to the railway.On the 20th of February 1993 , after managning to collect enough evidence , the police were finally able to charge both Venables and Thompson with the kidnapping and manslaughter of Bulger.

Despite the fact that the investigation was handled logically well given the tender age of the suspects , personally I still believe that it could have been handled better. First of all, I would have brought in the witnesses infront of the suspects to see the suspects’ reaction to them and perhaps get the confession out of them faster. In addition to this , I would have tried to put the fact that the suspects were mere boys aside as much as possible and fought for not just a confession but perhaps for an explanation as to why they committed the horrific murder. This would have been very helpful in court, not just to show the awareness that the boys had of the nature of the crime they committed, but to further establish whether these boys were a threat to society or whether this was just something that happened without any possible explanation. The pressure the police had from both the media and the whole nation certainly did not help them in their investigation and perhaps this is why the police were looking for a confession as quick as possible. Since the media was portraying the suspects as monsters it must have been very hard for the police to sympathize with the suspects as they could not understand why these boys had committed this murder.This would be where my investigation would differ, as I would’ve befriended the suspects , hard as it would have been , in order to try to get the truth perhaps by doing what you would with do any kid ; offering them a reward for their cooperation. This , I believe , would have played a crucial role in getting a confession out of the boys.

D) Why it Happened?(Criminological theories)

A number of criminological theories could be put into question in James Bulger’s case but perhaps the most controversial one could be applied in this case; Cesare Lombroso’s Born- Criminal theory.

This criminological theory is inarguably the most dangerous one as it gives no logical explanation as the criminals themselves can not explain why they commit certain crimes and no one can recognise these crimininals except for their special characteristics or their odd behaviour according to Lombroso.

This theory could be applied in this case as the boys never gave any real explanation to why they committed the crime, which might have been due to the fact that they did not possess any logical explanation which even if not entirely, it backs the Born-Criminal theory.

This notion of being born criminal is also backed by the detectives who handled this case as they could find no other possible justification why children could murder children alike. On the other hand , in the case of Robert Thompson , the criminogenic family he was raised in could have played an important factor in his behaviour. His mother and his siblings were all mercilessly beaten by his father Robert Thompson senior who eventually abandoned his family. After this, his mother turned to drinking and violent behaviour became a habit if her aswell. This shows that Thompson was not immune to violent behaviour , which may in turn give some insight about his criminal behaviour. Jon Venables also showed a rather odd behaviour even if not entirely criminal at school after his parents split up.He demanded to have everything he wanted, and violence was his main amusement . In addition to this, when Jon Venables went to spend a few days with his father, he was exposed to some incredibly gruesome videos or pornographic ones which were certainly not suitable for his young age.One of this videos , “Child’s Play 3” contained a horrific murder which was very close in resemblance to the one he and his friend Thompson committed.

Criminology is the study of criminal behaviour but in this case society seemed to deter from trying to understand these young boys , rather they enjoyed condemning them blaming everything from violent video games to problems in society such as divorce and theft amongst other things.

This lead to society accepting the notion put forward by then Prime Minister John Major that society should try to understand a little less and rather condemn a little more.

The Major Security Issues In Malaysia Criminology Essay

The concept of national security involves the ‘preparations against threats to a country’s national independence, territorial integrity and national sovereignty emanating from internal or external forces or a combination of the two’. The goal of national security is to protect the core values of the state: ideology, sovereignty, territory, government regime and citizens. Buzan et al (1998) suggests that security is effected by ‘factors in five major sectors: military, political, economic, societal and environmental’. [3] Since the beginning of World War Two (WWII) there have been many significant events across these five major sectors, which have shaped Malaysia’s national security. The most significant of these events include the Japanese occupation during WWII, the communist threat during the Cold War, the Confrontation with Indonesia, the 13 May 1969 race riots and the 9/11 terrorists attacks. There are also many non-traditional threats, both internal and external across all sectors that continue to shape Malaysia’s approach to national security today.

The aim of this paper is to outline and critically evaluate the major security issues that have changed the outlook on, and approach to national security in Malaysia.

This essay will discuss major security issues that have shaped Malaysia’s approach to national security since the beginning of WWII.

The Japanese influence on Malaya up to WWII had been positive in terms of invigorating Malay Nationalism and brought on the idea that Asian could challenge western powers. [4] However, the Japanese occupation during WWII created a lasting memory for Malaysia’s future elite in that it shaped their thoughts regarding the need for self-reliance in terms of security and defence. [5] Under British rule after the War, and on the eve of an evolving nationalist movement for independence, Malaya was challenged by a serious internal security threat – communist terrorists.

The First and Second Malayan Emergencies and the threat of communism are significant security events in the evolution of Malaysia’s national security. The success of the counterinsurgency (COIN) made it an example for COIN operations around the world. [6] Through KESBAN and RASCOM [7] Malaysia had established a whole of Government approach to internal security issues, primarily focused on communist terrorists, however Malaysia was still dependent on external support against external conventional threats through the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement (AMDA) and later the Five Powers Defence Arrangement (FPDA). [8] 

Malaysia’s focus on COIN operations through the Malayan Emergencies made it vulnerable to external conventional threats. Although the Confrontation with Indonesia in the 1960s and the fall of Saigon following the Vietnam War failed to perpetuate into full-scale war for Malaysia these events had two significant impacts on Malaysia’s outlook, and approach to national security. Firstly, as Malaysia was still reliant on the British to deal with external conventional threats through the AMDA and from 1971 the FPDA, they needed to assure national security by pursuing regional security through diplomatic means until its Defence Forces were sufficiently matured to deal with conventional threats. Malaysia was a key driver in establishing ASEAN and ZOPFAN as well as normalising ties with China and Vietnam. [9] Secondly, the events spurred military expansion toward developing a conventional war fighting capability. [10] 

It is difficult to determine if Malaysia’s continued military expansion and modernisation is the result of an Asian arms race as Soong asserts [11] or just the need to develop one of the smallest Defence Forces in the region [12] to one that is suitably self-reliant in accordance with the desires of the National Defence Policy. [13] Nevertheless, the development and maintenance of a credible conventional war fighting capability does little when the threat to security is from within as Malaysia was sadly to learn on 13 May 1969.

The 13 May 1969 race riots are said to be one of the darkest moments in Malaysian history. [14] The reasons for the riots are many and varied but can be summarised as racial indifference regarding national language, Malay special rights, citizenship rights, and education policy. In essence, the tensions between the Malays and Chinese grew out of the perceived or actual threat posed to each races existence either through a lack of policy or policy itself. In terms of national security, racial tensions had been bubbling away in the background of other more conventional threats such as Communism and the Confrontation with Indonesia. [15] Regardless of the causes of the riots this watershed moment, Malaysian political life was ‘refashioned, the whole notion of internal security took on another dimension’, [16] based on race relations. Racial tensions have continued to challenge Malaysia’s approach to internal security with the 1998 Muslim-Hindu conflict in Kumpang Rawa, Penang; the 2001 Taman Medan Incident; the ‘run-ins’ with HINDRAF and more recently the protests in Kuala Lumpur on 27 February 2011 regarding disparaging remarks against Malay Indians in the school text book and novel ‘Interlok’. [17] In sum, there were 1060 racial incidents in 2010 involving Malays, Chinese and Indians that continue to threaten Malaysia’s ‘political stability and social harmony’. [18] In so much as the 13 May 1969 was a ‘wakeup call’ to significant internal security issues that threaten ‘political stability and social harmony’ the ‘fix’ appears to be more oriented on policing rather than policy. [19] Hence, a ‘ticking time bomb’ remains so long as the ‘lid’ of policing on the ‘boiling pot’ of racial inequity has a political [20] ‘flame’ that remains unattended.

The 11 September 2001 attacks not only changed Malaysia’s outlook on, and approach to national security but that of the West and much of the developing world. [21] The threat to Malaysia from this event and later the Bali bombings in 2002 and 2005, the Jakarta JW Marriot bombing in 2003 and the 2004 Australian Embassy bombing in Jakarta was two fold. First was the fact that Malaysia, like any other country, could be a target of violent non-state actors (VNSA). [22] Secondly, and more alarming was that Malaysia was a predominantly Muslim state and could be linked to radical Islamic groups such as Kumpulan Militan Malaysia (KMM) and Jemaah Islamiah (JI) and their alleged connection with Al-Qaeda. Such allegations and proof of links could erode investor confidence in Malaysia and be economically and politically devastating. [23] These fears were later realised when it was discovered that two of the masterminds behind the Indonesian bombings were Malaysians. [24] Malaysia’s response was to establish the Southeast Asia Regional Centre for Counter Terrorism (SEARCCT) in July 2003. [25] 

Today there are a number of security issues that continue to shape Malaysia’s approach to national security. The complex overlapping claims over the resource rich Spratly Islands (and the claim to Sabah by the Philippine’s) has seen the Malaysian Armed Forces commit significant air, sea and troop assets in the region to defend and protect its claims, particularly on the Ardasier, Mariveles and Swallow Reefs’. [26] Further civil (through the Maritime Enforcement Agency (MEA) and Naval sea and air assets remain committed to patrolling and enforcing Malaysia’s sea lines of communication and its Economic Exclusion Zones (EEZ) from piracy and illegal fishing. Stretching these security assets further are issues such as organised crime, illegal immigrants, smuggling, and sea pollution. Malaysia’s Navy, Airforce and MEA continue to receive sizeable proportions of the Defence and Security budgets to modernise and expand to deal with these threats. [27] 

Other non-traditional and non-military threats continue increasing and thus shape Malaysia’s approach to security. These include smuggling goods and services, illegal immigration, drug trafficking, communicable diseases, deviant and cult groups, extremism, refugees, ethnic conflicts, environment disasters, cyber crime and several other illegal activities that can be categorised as organised crime. These threats have seen Malaysia’s approach to security focus more toward non-military threats in recent years. [28] 

If there is a lesson to be relearned from the past for Malaysia regarding an approach to national security it is the need for a holistic approach as was evident with the implementation of KESBAN in response to the Second Malayan Emergency. Malaysia’s defence management has a clear chain of command from the National Security Council (NSC) through to the lowest rungs of the Armed Forces and Police Force. [29] Security management is problematic, however. Eight ministries/agencies and 12 departments are responsible for the security of Malaysia. [30] Thus creates the problem where interagency barriers hinder the timely application of force against a threat from a particular threat sector based on the untimely dissemination of intelligence [31] and generally poor coordination. [32] Although, there is a significant level of cooperation between individual agencies responsible for national security it is only achieved at an interagency level rather than through the chain of command [33] .


There have been several major security issues that have shaped the outlook and approach to security in Malaysia since WWII. The Japanese invasion shaped thought and provided the desire for self-reliance, the Malayan Emergencies shaped and drove a whole of Government approach to national security, the Confrontation and the US withdrawal from Vietnam drove Military expansion for security and defence toward countering external conventional threats and the bloody 13 May 1969 shaped Malaysia’s approach back toward internal security issues. More recently, the 9/11 attacks and myriad other non-conventional and non-military threats continue to challenge and shape Malaysia’s approach to national security. Of note are the internal threats to security where the approach appears to be policing over policy. The author believes that unless positive and clear progress is made in these areas that racial tensions will again boil to the surface.

Increase In Private Car Usage Construction Essay

This paper shows the public attitude towards new urban transport system. This study was actually taken out when the project was being under construction. Random sampling was done to the people who commute mostly by their own car. People were asked different questions by surveying questionnaire to find travel attitudes. SPSS was used to find results. Most people were not willing to switch from their own car to new urban transport system. By results it was found that current public transport in Lahore is uncomfortable, unsecure, and not reliable. By assuring that new system will be reliable, comfortable and suits you in every respect, most people were still unwilling to switch from car because they don’t have trust on govt. To conclude, new system has drawbacks and people attitudes are not eco- friendly.


Increase in private car usage in developing countries is causing numerous problems. Many big cities of developing world are facing issues like congestion, air pollution etc. Public transport and sustainable modes of travelling are considered to be solution. (Goodwin, 1996; Greene and Wegener, 1997).

Lahore is the second populated city of Pakistan. Its population is more than 9 million and about 13.5 million daily people travel in 2006. (Transport Department1, 2012).

Population is increasing, private car trend and related problems are exacerbating. In city, public transport is very poorly managed, traffic jams has increased the commuting distance. Lahore Transport Company buses are good but these are in very few routes. Mostly mini-buses which are very poor in condition are major transportation mode.

By the last 15 years, increase in population and private vehicles has deteriorated air quality. Vehicle registration has increased from 56 to 116 per 1000 inhabitants. Cars have been increasing 10-15% annually. (Transport Department2, 2012)

There were 2129990 total registered vehicles up to June 2009. (Punjab Development Statics, 2010)

Public transport is often considered a sustainable mode for transportation. There should be policy measures to increase public transport usage. For that, public transport systems have to be improved by understanding the travel behavior and consumer needs. ( Beirao and Cabral, 2007 )

Rapid Transit System

To cope with traffic problems and such issues JICA done a detailed study in Lahore on transportation system. The study plan was for 20 years, two main corridors were identified:

Ferozepur Road Corridor 28.7 Km

Multan Road Corridor 12.4 Km

Ferozpur Road corridor is also called Green Line, which extends from Hamza Town to Shahdara. It goes along Ferozpur Road, Fatima Jinnah Road, The Mall, Lower Mall, Ravi Road and ends on Shahdara through River Ravi.

The journey from Hamza Town to Shahdra Station will take about 45 minutes by a regular speed of 33 Km/hr. It is assessed that 380,000 commuters will travel per day in 2015 rising to around 666,000 by 2025. The expected cost of Green Line is 2.4 billion US$, and an EIRR of over 13%.

Orange Line is second important line 27 Km long from South west of Lahore at Ali Town to Dera Guran in the North east. It runs along Raiwind Road to Thokar Niazbeg, Multan Road, Lake Road, Macleod Road, GT Raod and ends on east of Ring Road & GT Road interchange.

The Patronage of this line is projected to be about 330,000 commuters per day in the opening year 2018, going up to 495,000 by 2025. The expected cost is 2.0 billion US$ and EIRR is 10%.

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project also stimulated private sector attention in city transport system. Govt. of Punjab and Lahore Transport Company would make sure investment friendly environment to the private sector to practice protected, comfortable, reliable and inexpensive public transport.

Feasibility, design, manufacture, process and maintenance of BRT will be on BOT basis. There’ll be electronic fare system and fare will be decided by LTC which can vary with the time. Standards of safety and speed will be sustained.

It will save vehicle operational and maintenance cost. Travel time and congestion will decrease resulting in reduced number of road accidents. Economic activities will upturn. By the presence of smoother and safer intra city travel system people will tend to switch from private car to new urban transport system. Thus this will be fuel efficient and sustainable mode. Project implementation is based on Public Private Partnership (PPP) which will resolve finance problem and project will complete in certain time.

Private party will be responsible for whole implementation of project.

BRT system will take up in the central defined lanes. This will prevent from traffic queues, pedestrians, illegal parked automobiles etc. Passengers will pay on bus stop entering, and every platform of station will be elevated to the height of bus floor. Bus lanes must be maintained by regulatory signing and separated from rest of the traffic by physical barriers. Additional force will be hired to prevent infringement into bus lanes and fines will be charged for illegal entry. Bus way requires two lanes in each course, and one lane will be 10 feet wide in each course.

(Transport Department1, 2012 & Transport Department2, 2012)


Data Source:

Random sampling was done along the proposed Green Line where project work had been started. It was about long. I did survey in Punjab Secretariat, Govt. College University, Punjab University (old campus), Choburji, 32 Chowk, Urdu Bazar.

I selected those people who travel by their private car mostly. I acquired the information by asking questions so that i tried to get relevant and accurate answer. There were 100 questionnaires that I filled by people. Before it I run pilot testing to correct mistakes in our questionnaire.

For all the statistical analysis, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. Then the analytical techniques like frequencies, cross tables, correlations, and regression was done and interpreted the results.


The variables that I used in questionnaire were age, income, education, marital status, gender, family size, commuting distance, time spend on road, usage of public transport, reliability of public transport, reason for using private car, air pollution by car usage, road congestion on road, reliance on new urban transport, willingness to switch from car, reason for not willing.

Contingent Evaluation Method:

I used CVM method to find willingness to switch from car usage to new urban transport system. CVM is used to find willingness to pay and willingness to accept for some betterment in the system. The method enables us to establish the value of those goods and services that are not exchanged in markets hence prices are not associated with them.



What is your education?

Will you switch to new transport system?

What is your education?

Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)





Will you switch to new transport system?

Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)





As the value is .077 near to zero it means there’s a weak relation between education and willingness to switch. More the education means that there’s less willingness to switch from private car usage to public transport. People were not willing to switch either they have highly educated or not. This shows the selfish and non-friendly behavior to environment.


What is your income?

Will you switch to new transport system?

What is your income?

Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)





Will you switch to new transport system?

Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)





Correlation value is .059 for income, showing also weak relation between income and willingness to switch. More the income person is less likely to switch from car usage to public transport.


The value of regression should be from 0 to 1. The low values education, income and other factors show that the people attitudes are not determined by these factors. They don’t care of environment.


Model Summary



R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate
















a. Predictors: (Constant), what is your gender? What is your income? What is your age?

b. Predictors: (Constant), what is your gender? What is your income? What is your age? What type of is your job? What is your education? What is your commuting distance?

c. Predictors: (Constant), what is your gender? What is your income? What is your age? What type of is your job? What is your education? What is your commuting distance? Road congestion increased time spends, comfort and reliability of public transport, new urban transport system is reliable




Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients




Std. Error








What is your age?






What is your income?






What is your gender?












What is your age?






What is your income?






What is your gender?






What is your education?






What type of is your job?






What is your commuting distance?












What is your age?






What is your income?






What is your gender?






What is your education?






What type of is your job?






What is your commuting distance?






comfort and reliability of public transport






new urban transport system is reliable






road congestion increased time spend






a. Dependent Variable: will you switch to new transport system?

Conclusion and Discussion:

Road congestion and air pollution is one of the major problems caused by increasing trend of private car usage. Public transport is often considered an effective and environment friendly way of travelling. Rapid transit project in Lahore seems to be effective but people using private car are not willing to switch to this.

Most people don’t have trust on current government, they dislike this project. Some say that this project would not be completed because this government was going to end sooner.

And they didn’t believe that it’d have security, more comfort, and better management.

And many people had the problem that this rapid transit route is specified and their homes were far away. So, if they wanted to travel by mass transit then they had to cover long distance to join it.

Some people say that they had to done different tasks in whole day so the timing of rapid transit would not suit them.

Only, very less people were agreed on switching to rapid transit because they suffer mostly by traffic jams and can’t afford any damage to their car.

These all are behaviors of people and they don’t depend totally on education, income, marital status, gender, commuting distance etc.

By doing all work I concluded that the behavior would all different when the project was completed and bus was started to travel. Mini-buses, vans, and open rickshaws would almost washout. Because these all are in very bad conditions and person only used that due to absence of alternative.

So, I think there’s no need to tell the people right things but change the situation and conditions so that their attitude becomes environmental friendly. As effective policy making and its implementation can do this.

The Construction Technology Assignment Construction Essay

This is the report on development of the house which comprise of ground floor and one upper floor. The detailed specification of 32o pitched roof construction will be attached on the drawing. The report will specify type of cavity wall , section of around the head and cill of the timber window and detailed specification of external brick work. Next paragraph describes drainage requirements for a building and finally detailed examination and specification of the ground floor.


Memebers of the roof

Roof structure- Truss Rafters

The roof that going to cover 15.6 long and 10.6 meters wide House is a traditional pitched roof with a pitch of 38o . I was considering two shapes of trussed rafters on this particular project what was Fink and Howe, but finally I decide to go for Howe because of quite wide span which is 10.2 meters. Rafters will be prefabricated by Magtruss Company from Drogheda Co. Louth. Chemically treated timber used for those is 175x50mm wide. Wooden construction going to be connected by Galvanised steel gang-nail connector plates. Trussed Rafters will be placed at every 600 mm on the 75×100 mm wall plates. For best stability of roof construction will be used diagonal bracing. Holding down roof to the walls is not necessarily in this area.


Insulation is a major part of our project. The roof that will cover the house, is a cold type of the roof what means the ceiling has to be properly insulated. The insulation material that will be used is called Owens Corning PINK. It is a 160 mm thick fibre glass insulation which doesn’t absorb moisture. That will prevent cold bridge forming from the cold roof space to the leaving space.

Roof space ventilation

In fact all new property should have a continues form of ventilation installed on both sides of the roof. Cold Roof spaces should be ventilated to outside air to reduce the possibility of condensation. A more rational approach to reducing the possibility of warm , moist air penetrating a cold roof space. To provide roof space ventilation in the house, Eaves ventilators will be laid over insulation in the eave area, to enable air freely penetrate the roof space (drawing). The air from outside will get through the depth soffit ventilators.

Breathing Membrane

To avoid wind blow into the roof space, breathable membrane – Solitex will be laid across roof rafters from the eaves upward up to ridge. Breathable membranes allow unwanted water vapour to escape from the roof space while still excluding wind. Ventilation through the roof and breathable membranes reduce the potential for condensation to form on the cold surfaces within the roof. Timber battens of 50mm x 35 mm wide at every 330 mm will secure Solitex membrane.

Solitex is designed to replace underlay felt in house construction. Solitex acts like a gortex material on the house, allowing the house to breathe whilst at the same time preventing water penetration. It is lightweight and easy to work with. It is extremely strong and does not tear. It does not degenerate under heat and sun and is guaranteed to last a lifetime. Solitex is much more expensive than underlay felt and many other roofing membranes. Much more expensive means that an increase in roofing cost on a large roof will be of about 400 Euro above the cost of underlay felt. This is very little extra to pay when you consider the resultant benefits and should be considered as money well invested and money very well spent. Solitex is a material that is designed for modern living, being environmentally friendly and offering huge benefits.

Covering- Roadstone SL8 slates

Slates is a traditional roof covering material in many countries. It is a splitted and shaped as a slate stone. They are very durable. Slates bring to homeowner many advantages like non-combustible, resists fire, storm and wind . The fact that they are made of natural stone there is wide range of color combination. Slates are waterproof and they  resists climatic changes. The cost of maintenance is very little  and accidental breakage is easily replaced.    


SL8 is a new generation thin leading edge concrete slate. It has a riven texture meaning that it is not a smooth surface but has the appearance of a river bed sand pattern. Roadstone roof tiles are manufactured to exacting standards at Roof Tile plants in Clondalkin, County Dublin and Currabeg, Ovens, County Cork. The size of tile is 420 x 330 mm and minimum pitch in case of nailing is 25° or clipping 22.5°. SL8 are suitable to cover even 90° pitch roof. Thin leading edges and concealed interlocks give an authentic slate appearance to domestic and commercial developments alike.

The minimum headlap that SL8 can be lied in is 85mm and the maximum 110mm. The possible gauge range is from 310 mm up to 335mm. Covering capacity at 320mm gauge is 10.4 slates / m². The linear cover of one slate is 300mm. Minimum batten size for this particular slate is 47mm x 35mm. Weight of SL8 at 320mm gauge is 51kg / m².

SL8 concrete slates is an economical solution for new or re-roofing work to maintain the character of natural slate. The roof covered by SL8 will enhance the traditional design of a building, particularly in rural settings.

Possible Roof covering

The roof on our project will be covered by SL8 Roadstone slate , however I would like to describe three other possible in our case types of roof coverings which is Plain clay Tile, Asphalt Shingles and metal sheets covering.

Plain clay tiles

Clay tile is still among the most popular roofing materials in Europe, where homes and centres of commerce are designed to last for generations. Their simplicity of form and shape make traditional, tapered mission tile ideal for funnelling and shedding water from pitched roofs. Clay roofing tile is a good choice for homes with a southwestern, Italian, or Spanish Mission design, or even for homes with a modern, clean look. This style is more prevalent in California.

Clay tiles offer the homeowner and roofing contractor numerous advantages. The roof covered by clay tiles typically last for 50 years or longer and do not rust or otherwise deteriorate. There is high range of colours available on the market: from ivory and almond to deep reds and browns, apricot to peach and buff tones. The beauty of natural clay colours is unrivalled, clay tiles mellow and improve with age. With the artificial colours that you get with concrete tiles and many types of clay tile,  colour is lost with time, you just have to look at the concrete roofs of the past 70 years to observe this fact.

Clay tiles resist the passage of heat gain from summer sun and winter heat loss. They are more insulating than the other roof covering materials. The mass them provides superior insulation from sound. Tile roofs are non-combustible and protect the structure from burning embers without suffering irreparable damage.

However we need to keep in mind that a clay roof is very heavy, and expensive to install. It requires little maintenance but tiles are fragile, so walking on them can break them. That makes it more difficult to accomplish maintenance like painting or cleaning rain gutters or fireplaces.

Plain Clay tiles are a sustainable product, the longevity of clay means that the energy and raw materials used in their production are offset over the whole life of the roof, which in the case of most clay tile roofs, is over 100 years.


Glass fibre Asphalt shingles

Asphalt shingles are the most common roofing material used today. They are relatively inexpensive, starting at around 0.50 euro per square foot installed and go up from there. Things that determine cost are geographical location, slope of the roof, height of the building, ease of access to the premises, complexity of the project, the particular type of shingle and numerous other factors. Asphalt shingles are very simple to install enabling many homeowners to do the work themselves. They come in a variety of colours and styles, are fairly durable and can be easily repaired and maintained.

Asphalt shingles are commonly available with wide section of sizes ,styles and colours, suitable for most residential applications. Experienced Do-It-Yourselfers would be able to apply asphalt shingles successfully. They are low Maintenance and Easy Repairs. Other more expensive roofing products can require more maintenance, specialized tools, can be more difficult to repair and almost always require professional installation.

Glass fiber shingles have a glass fiber reinforcing mat manufactured to the shape of the shingle. This mat is then coated with asphalt which contains mineral fillers. The glass fiber mat is not waterproof by itself. It’s purpose is for reinforcement. What makes the glass fiber shingle waterproof is the asphalt. However, the asphalt itself will not stick to the mat. For this reason, “fillers” are used. The fillers in the asphalt cling to the glass fibers in the mat. The asphalt then encapsulates the glass fibers, fills all of the little holes and voids in the mat rendering it waterproof. After this cools a bit, an adhesive asphalt is used to cover the mat and the ceramic granules are then embedded.

The ceraminc granules are there for two reasons. The primary reason is to protect the shingles from the sun. The sun’s UV rays are very damaging to asphalt and cause it to deteriorate prematurely. This is one of the same reasons that gravel is used on built-up roofs. The second and more obvious reason for the granules is aesthetics. Asphalt shingles are available in a wide variety of colors to match almost any facade or landscape.

The lifespan of asphalt shingles depends highly upon the environment. Shingles in cooler climates seem to last longer than those installed in the warmer climates. The hotter the environment is, the shorter the service life of the shingles. One thing that’s very damaging to shingles is Thermal Shock. Thermal Shock is what roofing materials experience when the ambient temperature changes dramatically within a very short period of time – usually 24 hours. In Ireland temperatures are comparable stable .

metal covering

Using a Metal sheets as a roof covering material dates back to the twelfth century. Over many years this technology has been improving until these days. There are number of good reasons to use metal on residential building. First , metal is predictable and stable product. Unlike other single-ply technologies like rubber, a metal panel is not affected by ultraviolet rays, which are one of the leading sources of rood degradation. Second, Advantages in metal coating and finishing technologies have significantly improved the life cycle of metal roof, and related cost benefits.

Metal roofing is also extremely puncture-resistant, which is a valuable benefit to today’s building owner who is looking for long-term , low maintenance solutions. Actually, durability is one reason for metals growing popularity.

Metal roofing is extremely versatile. It is compatible with all types of building materials and can be incorporated into all design concept. Metal roofing would be an effective accent for our masonry house. The construction of metal roof is very light and extremely durable by the time.

Colour and finishes are available to suit any application, from earth tones to exotic tropical hues, from bare, unfinished surfaces to special coatings designed to resist corrosive atmospheres such as Irish.

The use of metal roofing panels on a residence offers pride of ownership to the homeowner who wants to have something different for neighbours. Metal panels are made to simulate clay tile, wooden shakes and slate. For addition they install easily and quickly.

Perhaps the most significant benefit of all , given before , is environmental friendliness of metal roofing, form installation through eventual tear-off. To begin with, many metal roofing products use recycled metal in their initial fabrication.

Second , the building owner and contractor does not have to contend with external flames, hot kettles or noxious fumes during installation. Finally , after the roof has served its useful life , most of its metal is 100 percent recyclable , which eliminates concerns about hazardous waste disposal.

Cavity wall- Partial fill

Cavity walls consist of two ‘skins’ separated by a hollow space. The outer leaf and the cavity serve to resist the penetration of rain to the inside face and the inner leaf to support floors, provide solid internal wall surface and, to some extent, act as insulation against transfer of heat.

The Cavity wall in the house is 302,5 mm thick. The outer leaf will be construct of Cheshunt Multi Brick lied in on stretcher bond . The brick of dimensions is 215mm x 102.5mm x 65mm. Inner will be build of Lightweight Blocks the size of 440mm x 225mm x 100mm. The gap between the walls going to be 100 mm wide. To tie the two leaves together will be used mild steel coated with zinc ties spaced at every 900mm horizontally and 440 mm vertically.

The cavity wall in our project is partial fill one. Partial fill construction requires the use of insulating material in the form of boards that are sufficiently rigid to be secured against the inner leaf of the cavity. Thermwall TW 50- Partial Fill insulation of thickness 250mm is a high performance thermal insulating mineral wool which satisfies the Building Regulations with a product that is BBA approved and that has a Euroclass A1 fire rating.

Because mineral wool is high performance acoustic insulator, flanking noise transmission down the wall cavities is also reduced.

Partial fill cavity walling has been regarded as the best-practice form of wall construction in Ireland for at least two decades. It is the most efficient way to savings on energy heat loss. I compared thermal conductivity values of two Kingspan insulations. First one was 250mm partial fill Thermwall TW 50 and the second 750 mm mineral fibre full fill batt. The result was quite surprising. Partial fill with 0.022 W/m.K beat mineral fibre by 0.012 W/m.K!

However we have to remember that partial fill cavity wall require a clear cavity to avoid moisture penetrating into the board joints and through to the inner leaf of the wall by capillary action. Care should be taken to ensure that mortar does not fall on cavity ties. Were mortar falls on the tie it can also create a cold bridge.While a cavity is clear , such a wall application provides the most effective barrier to rain penetration by allowing the traditional wall cavity to be maintained.

External brick work

The face work is done in Pressed Brick. – The exposed surfaces of the building including the chimneys, to be faced with Cheshunt Multi pressed brick .

All face brick to be laid in the most skillful manner in coloured mortar. Each brick to be dipped in water before laying; each edge of the brick and down the middle to be butted, and all vertical joints to be filled solid from front to back. The brick to be laid with plumb bond and bonded to the backing with a diagonal header to every brick in every course. Special care should be taken to ensure that mortar does not fall into cavity space.

All courses of brickwork shall be kept level, and the bonds shall be accurately preserved. When necessary to bring any courses to the required height, clipped courses shall be formed , as in no case shall any mortar joints finish more than 10 mm thick. All brickwork shall be laid to the lines, and all walls and piers must be built plumb, true and square. Walls to be carefully leveled for floor joist.

All window openings are described on the attached drawings .

Mortar – Cement Mortar – All brickwork below the grade line and parapet walls shall be laid in mortar composed of 1 part fresh cement and 2 parts clean, sharp bank sand, properly screened, mixed with sufficient water to render the mixture of proper consistency. Care must be taken to thoroughly mix the sand and cement dry, in the proportions specified, before adding the water. The mortar shall be mixed in small quantities only, and in no case shall mortar that has commenced to set or stood over night be used.

Colored Mortar. – All face brick to be laid in mortar composed of lime putty and finely-sifted sand, coloured with Pecoria mortar stains; colour brown.

Bricks available through Dublin’s premier supplier -Bricks Ireland. The company is located in South Dublin and its open 7 days a week. They supply both to trade and to the retail market for bricks.


When designing a drainage system for a rural setting dwelling we must respect local authority requirements. Firstly, “A building shall be provided with such a drainage system as may be necessary for the hygienic and adequate disposal of foul water from the building.” (Department of the environment heritage & local government, 1997)

A building also shall be provided with a speared, drainage system for disposal of surface water from the building. These can not be connected to a sewer or septic tank reserved for foul water, and no part of a drainage system conveying foul water shall be connected to a

sewer reserved for surface water. Foul water drainage must be save of leakage.

Septic tank

On our site there is no access to foul water outfall , so necessarily is usage of foul water septic tank. A septic tank must be of adequate capacity and so constructed that it is impermeable to liquids. The proper ventilation has to be provided to avoid collecting dangerous gasses. Septic tank must be located in accessible in case of empting place.

High range of Precast Septic tanks are available on the market. The company called Shay Muratagh ( supply concrete tanks that are not prejudicial to the health of any person and do not pollute, so as to endanger public health, any water including ground water.

Foul water Drainage

convey the flow of foul water to a foul water outfall while creating foul water drainage few aspects has to be considered. The capacity of it ( depends on the size and gradient of the pipes) should be large enough to carry the expected flow at any point. In our case water flow rate which based on the typical household group of 1 WC , 1 bath, 1 or 2 washbasins and 1 sink is approximately 2,5 litres/second.

So that the building regulations require to use stack of 75 mm diameter , and recommended gradient to lie pipe underground would be from 1:60 to 1:100. To prevent proper water flow in branch pipes, WC demands pipe of 100 mm diameter and gradient of 9 mm , washbasins, the same as sink 50 mm and 18 mm gradient.

Foul water drainage should be save of blockage or leakage. If a trap forms part of an appliance, the appliance should be removable. All other traps should be fitted directly after the appliance and should be removable or be fitted with a cleaning eye.

While constructing drainage system we must remember to prevent foul air from entering the building under working conditions.

These particular drainage system the same as septic tank must be properly ventilated to prevent the build up of flammable gases. Ventilating pipes open to external air should finish at least 900 mm above any opening into the building within 3 m and should be finished with a cage or other perforated cover which does not restrict the flow of air.

The diameter of the part of a discharge stack which serves only for ventilation

In the two storey houses should be at least 75 mm. The local climate is free of low temperatures so PCV pipes can be lied on the external elevation of the house.

Foul water system also has to be accessible for clearing blockages. All of the trap which forms part of an appliance should be removable. The other traps should be fitted directly after the appliance and also should be removable or be fitted with a cleaning eye.

Branch pipes should discharge into another branch pipe, or a discharge stack, unless the appliances are on the ground floor. A branch pipe should not discharge into a stack in a way which could cause cross flow into any other branch pipe. A branch pipe should not discharge into a stack at a point lower than 450 mm above the invert of the tail of the bend at the foot of the stack in single dwellings of up to three storeys.

Rodding points should be provided to give access to any lengths of pipe which cannot be

reached from any other part of the system. All Pipes should be reasonably accessible for repair.

All stacks should discharge to a drain. The bend at the foot of the stack should have as large a radius as possible and should be at least 200 mm at the centre line.

Stacks serving urinals should be not less than 50 mm in diameter and stacks serving water closets should be not less than 100 mm in diameter.

Underground Pipe work – connection to septic tank by PVC-u BS 4514

The layout of the drainage system should be as simple as possible. Changes of direction and gradient should be minimised and as easy as practicable. Pipes should be laid in straight lines where practicable but may be laid to slight curves if these can still be cleared of blockages. Access points should be provided only if blockages could not be cleared without them. Drains should be laid to falls and have enough capacity to carry the flow. Underground drainage should be adequately protected from accidental damage from sources such as traffic, ground settlement and tree roots. The depth of cover will depend on the levels of the connections to the system, the gradients at which the pipes are to be laid and the ground levels. The minimum depth should be 900 mm under any road and 600 mm in fields and gardens. The system should be ventilated by a flow of air.

Surface water drainage

This drainage is to carry only rainfall water and it is not connected to the any server .

There is no requirement in this Document for the provision of rainwater drainage for areas of 6 m2 , However, following calculation of area drained rule indicates that our area is 146 m2. In this case the most effective will be Gutter of 150 mm dimension. Gutters should be laid with any fall towards the nearest outlet. Where there is a fall, or the gutter has a section which gives it larger capacity than a half-round gutter, or the outlet is round edged, it may be possible to reduce the size of the gutter and pipe. The size of a rainwater pipe should be at

least the size of the outlet from the gutter.

Ground floor

The type of ground floor used in our project is solid floor. Solid floor is meant this floor, which consist for the most part of concrete, receiving continuous support from the ground.

To provide a level base on which to cast a ground floor slab , 150 mm layer of hardcore will be laid. Hardcore raise the levels, reduce the capillary rise of ground moisture, and provide a dry firm base on which work can proceed or carry construction traffic. On the top of hardcore comes 20 mm layer of sand blinding.

Before ling the slab, required is to put DPM below it. It is to prevent moisture form the ground reaching the inside of the building. DPM also prevent the interaction of ground contaminates with the concrete , stopping interstitial condensation and retaining constructional water.

On the earlier prepared ground with hardcore , sand and DPM comes 100mm thick 30 N Concrete slab. For good quality base will be used site mixed concrete of proportions 1:2:4 cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate: coarse aggregate by volume. Now floor is ready to be insulated by 50 mm QF therm insulation boards on which will be lied 50 mm screed.

Two main factors made me to arrive with decision of using solid concrete ground floor. That was thermal and acoustic insulation, however there is many more benefits for the home owner .

As we know from physics sound is transmit by air vibration. Sources producing sound waves in air , such as from conversation or television , will in turn produce vibration in floors. On the other hand , floors may also be vibrated by direct impacts such as footsteps or objects dropped onto floor surfaces. The best way to avoid vibration of the floor would be constructing solid, vibration resistant concrete floor. The lowest floor of a building, if carried on the ground , normally does not present problems of sound transmission as the concrete acts as a barrier to sound. Additionally, the concrete prevents air leakage and slows down heat from escaping therefore a concrete home stays warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer. This can help keep utility costs low. For addition applying insulation to a groundbearing floor between the slab and the screed minimises thermal bridging and creates a floor with a rapid thermal response, which matches that of the rest of the building.

Concrete floor has a life time durability and great strength as well. Poured concrete forms a barrier to the elements and can be further strengthened by steel reinforcement.

In case of fire solid concrete floor can slow the spread of the flames giving a time to evacuate to safety. Not only could this could mean the difference between life and death, it could mean the difference between having some repairable fire damage versus the loss of your home and its contents.

Concrete floor construction has a greater resistance to water damage or leakage of any sort due to its solidity. Insects are less likely to infest solid concrete houses.

Environmentally friendly. Concrete is environmentally friendly as the ingredients of concrete are plentiful in supply.

Concrete upper floor

While designing first floor few factors has to be consider. Firstly our client wish to have well thermally and soundly insulated house. The other factors are to do with loads that floor will need to manage. High quality with no increase of cost would be recommended. So that I decide to use precast concrete floor, which contains concrete t-beams (170×115 mm) and lied between concrete fill blocks (440x100x215mm). T -beams will be lied at every 380 mm. Between concrete fill blocks and 50mm reinforced screed will be lied aerobeam infill block insulation of 50 mm thickness. It is important to put DPM membrane under screed, and DPC at joice of floor with the wall. Precast concrete floor will deliver to its user a essential comfort. Concrete upper floors provide improved sound Insulation between the floors and rooms. They also act as a thermal store; this can reduce heating costs especially when under-floor-heating systems are used.

Introduction To Microsoft Excel Computer Science Essay


MS-Excel is made of grid of rows and columns, which know as spreadsheet or electrician sheet or worksheet. In a Worksheet the intersection of row and column is called cell. In it columns are alphabetically labeled as A,B,C……..Z and then AA,AB,…..AZ and then BA,BB,….BZ and so on to IA,IB….IV, it is last column(IV) in excel sheet so it consists of Total 256 columns in it. And rows are numerically numbered as 1,2,3,4,5………..65,536 rows. So one worksheet consists 256 columns and 65,536 rows and there are 1,67,77,216 cells in it. Like this there are 255 worksheet in one workbook. And MS-Excel can N number of workbook.



ROWS(65,536) AND COLUMNS(256)




Fig : Representation of Workbooks and Worksheets in excel

To work with MS-EXCEL from Windows environment.


The environment of the ms-excel is as

Title Bar Menu Bar Standard Toolbar Columns

Sheet name cell(intersection of row and column)


This are important parts of ms-excel 1) Title Bar 2) Menu Bar 3) Standard Toolbar(optional) 4)Worksheet Name 5)Rows 6) Columns 7) Scroll Bars(Horizontal and Vertical) 8) Name Box 9) Formula Bar

1) Title Bar

2) Menu Bar

Some of the menus of Excel are as follows :

1) File Menu 2) Edit Menu 3) View Menu 4) Insert Menu 5) Format

Menu 6) Tools Menu 7) Data Menu 8) Window Menu 9) Help


3) Standard Toolbar which optional. It consists all shortcut icons to work

with files and cells.

4) Name Box : It display the reference of cursor pointer in the ms-excel

sheet(spreadsheet), it displays the Address of the cell where the cursor

pointer is moving that means cell address(intersection of row and column).

Example like A1. Here Column Alphabet is followed by Row number. A is

the Column Alphabet and 1 is Row Number.

5) Sheet Name : This are worksheet names that there in one workbook. The

default number of sheets in the excel can be controlled by user. The

minimum is 1 sheet and maximum is 255 sheets display in it. To adjust the

number of sheets go to tools menu in that select options (option) in it, a

window will be displayed in that select General option it there will be

option called sheets in new workbook with textbox with increment and

decrement button to it. By default there given name as Sheet1 and Sheet2 so

on up to Sheet255. Later sheet can be renamed also.

Sheet name list

6) Formula Bar : The Data (number or Characters or Strings or Used for

calculations also). First move your cursor pointer to the place you want to

enter the data in it and select Formula bar and enter the data that will

display in the cell where your cursor pointer there. Or if enter the data in the

cell directly also the data is visual in Formula Bar.

7) Scroll Bar : The Scroll Bar is used to move the sheet vertical and


In MS-Excel we have 9 menus in it, they are File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Data, Window and Help.

This menu are helpful in doing the common work within the worksheet the option of the different type of menu are as shown below.

File Menu Options Edit Menu Options View Menu Opt

Insert Menu Option Format Menu Option Tools Menu Option

Data Menu Option

Fig : The Workspace Area(Worksheet)

The MS-Excel is made of Grid Lines(Horizontal and Vertical), they are know as Rows and Columns, they are used to enter the data in the cell. The data are aligned properly in the cell.

Note : This gridlines are not visible while we print the worksheet or see a print preview at that time this gridlines will not visible. They are only for enter data in the proper way in the cell so they are aligned properly.

To move around the spreadsheet use keyboard arrow keys like ƒ¨ to move Right side of sheet, ƒ to move left side of sheet to move down side of the sheet and to move up side of sheet. To move one screen of sheet up or down use scroll bars. To move the desired cell type the cell address in the Name Box it take your cursor pointer to desired cell.

In excel the number are Right justified or Aligned ( i.e. means that numbers are displayed to Right corner of the cell) and Character are left justified or Aligned ( i.e. means that numbers are displayed to right corner of the cell).

Number in the cell Character in the cell

To enter the formula in excel we have special symbol it is

= (Equal to symbol), it used for all types of arithmetic and logical operations on the values and with cell address also. Suppose we want to add to values of cell A1 and B1 and result must be displayed in the C1 cell then first enter 2 values in the Cell A1 and B1 after that move your cursor to cell C1 and there type =Cell A1 value + cell B1 value. For example A1 cell has value 10 and B1 cell has value 20 then C1 cell will have result value as 30(10+20=30). We can also add the values using the cell address name also. Like this A1+B1. The advantage of using cell address is that we can copy the same formula to the other cell also. We can enter date and time into the cell in ms-excel.

To insert a new worksheet in the workbook the following step is involved.


A new worksheet will in introduced in the workbook. The sheet name will given in the increase order of the sheet. For example there are sheet1, sheet 2, sheet3 if i want a new sheet then the sheet name will be sheet4.


In excel we can increase and decrease the size of the column and row. The increasing and decreasing of row and column can done with help of mouse and keyboard also. To work with the mouse move the mouse to required column or row last to increase or decrease the size by dragging the mouse left and right for column and up and down for row. The default the width of the column size is 8.43 (or 64 pixels) and row height is 12.75. The size of column width and row height can be changed form the keyboard also the steps are as follows :

To increase the width of the column is like this


A small window will be displayed like this in which we can enter the size and change it.

To increase the height of the row is like this


A small window will be displayed like this in which we can enter the size and change it.

Note : Without distribution width of cell we can enter 8 numbers and 7 characters in it(Font Size is 12). It differs from Font Type ,Style and Size also.

To format the data (number or character in the cell) the following steps are required to work with

Step 1: enter the data in the cell.

Step 2: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

Step 3: A small window will be displayed it look like this

To format the number select number option in it. It has internal options like general , number, currency, accounting, date, time, percentage, fraction, scientific, text, special and custom.

To align the data in the text we will use Alignment option in it. To change the font type, style , size, color, effects and underline we will use Font option in it. To draw the border to the cell as table form we will select border option in it. To fill the color to cell background we will select the pattern option in it. To lock the formula from or being copied to other cell we will select the protection option in it.

As per the requirement of formatting we will use the option in it.

To format the numbers in the excel that means increasing the decimal point number to the number or using (,) comma after the hundred’s place or type of values to be used like no negative values. Steps are as followed to format the number:

Step 1: Enter the number(s) in the cell.

Number(s) in the cell before

Step 2: High light the cell which you want to format using shift button +

arrow keys(up, down, left, right) or with mouse button dragging.

High lighted number in the cell to be formatted

Step 3: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

A small format cells window will be displayed in that select number option menu and in that again number option and then format the number.

In this i am

formatting the number’s

decimal value to 2

places and allowing

only positive values,

at last press ok

button on it.

The result will look like this after formatting the number(s) in the cell

Number(s) after formatted is as in the cell

To format the number to currency format the following steps are required :

Step 1: Enter the number(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the number(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

Step 4: In the format cells select currency option from the number menu then select the number of decimal places required after the number and symbol required before the number as prefix to it( like dollar symbol $, pound symbol £ and etc,,. And the type of value negative or positive values only.

Numbers before formatting Number after formatting









Number formatted with 2 decimal values and $ symbol and positive values only.

To format the number to percentage format the following steps are required :

Step 1: Enter the number(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the number(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

Step 4: In Format Cells select Number option. In it select percentage option then select the number of decimal places option to introduce number of decimal places after the normal numbers.

The result will be multiply of 100 of cell value, with number of decimal values as select and at last of result we will have percentage symbol(%).

Numbers before formatting Number after formatting









To format the Date the following steps are required :

Step 1: Enter the Date(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: Highlight the Date(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

Step 4: In the Format Cells select Date option from number menu. In the Date option we have 2 sub option in it 1) Type : it specifies which date format style we want to format it. 2) Location to change according the place like u.s.a., u.k., France and etc,,

Date(s) before formatting Date(s) after formatting











Few of the options of the date

type sub options are like this.

To Format the Text in the cell(s) the following steps are involved:

Step 1: Enter the Data(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the Data(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

Step 4: In the format cells window select Font menu option. In it sub option are will be like this.

1) Font Type 2) Font Style 3) Font Size 4) Color 5) Underline Style 6) Effects to text 7) Preview.

The Font menu has option called Font which name of the Font type like Arial, courier new, time new Roman, Arial Narrow and etc, and 4 Font Style like Regular, Bold, Italic, Bold Italic, and then Font Size from 1 to 100 and etc,,, and then Underline style , Color of the Font, and then Special effects like Strikethrough, Superscript and Subscript. And one place to see effects all that is Preview place. As per you requirement select above option in it.

Text before formatting Text after formatting





It font type is Arial, Now font type is Courier new size is 10

Font size is 10 and according to type and style bold and

Normal style. effects is strikethrough.

Note : The Font size and style will change according to the corresponding selection of the Font Type.

To format data in cell with proper Alignment involves following steps:

Step 1: Enter the Data in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the Data in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

Step 4: In format cells window select Alignment Menu option. The window look like this

In this we can align the horizontal and vertical text can be controlled and orientation and Text direction are the sub option in it.

Text Alignment Horizontal has option in it like general, left(indent), center, Right(indent), fill, justify, center Across selection, distributed(indent) and Vertical has option in it like Top, bottom, center, justify, distributed. As per the selection the text will be aligned in the cell.

The text control is used to control the text in the cell, wrap text wrappers the text not allowing it move out the cell last border and forcing it to start in the next line in the same cell, shrink to fit if the entered text size more than the cell size than it will shrink (reduce the size of text and fit it) in the cell, merge cells is used to merge combine the group of cells into one total cell.

To change the direction of text in the cell we use the orientation option in the excel according to the degrees given to the text in the cell it will change it directions.

Note : The formatting of the Font can also done by the standard tool bar icons also but is shortcut way.

To format data in cell with proper Border involves following steps:

Step 1: Enter the Data in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the Data in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT ƒ  CELL

Step 4: In the format cells we have border menu to draw border to the cell as per the you selection of type in it. The window look like this:

It has sub option like line ƒ style and color presetƒ  none or outline or inside


Data before border to cell Data after border to cell












25Slno name age

1 rama 22

2 ravi 23

3 rana 25

As per the style and color of line and presets and border selected the border will be drawn to the corresponding cell which are highlighted only.


In ms-excel we can fill the series of number in the rows or columns. The number can also be filled automatically in the rows or columns. To enter the number automatically without the help of menu bar option. To do this first we must enter 2 number into consecutive rows or columns like this as shown the below figure. Then highlight that two consecutive rows or columns, then make your

Mouse Pointer as fill handler something like this and then drag the mouse pointer to the sequences of number to be generated or up to the required row or column limit. The number generated is by the difference of the two number in the above fig difference is 1 then generated series is like this

Like this we can generate the series of number in the ms-excel, the generated number is the difference of the second number minus the first number 10 20 then difference is 10 number sequence will be 10 20 30 40 50 and etc,,, .

If we want to generate through the menu options then we require to following the way. First step enter the number in cell that is the starting number in it to generate the series of number. Second step go to Edit menu in that select Fill option and in it select sub option Series a window will be displayed like this

In the window the type Linear means the number will be generated in sum(addition) of the previous no in the cell plus the step value up to the stop value or up to the selected or highlighted range in the worksheet, Growth is the multiplication of the cell number into the step up to the stop value or up to the selected or highlighted range in the worksheet, date to generate date on the data unit depend, AutoFill will fill the number automatically if but in this option no step value or stop value is required it will fill the number automatically up to the highlighted cell in the worksheet. To generate the number with have second number in the cell then use the trend option the above window

The option to series option


The editing in excel and be done by press function F2 or click on the cell the mouse pointer will be displayed on the formula bar or select the cell which we want to editing work in it and then go to formula bar and press it the formula bar will be highlighted then we can do the modification to it.


In excel calculation can be done in 2 ways 1)one is called formula method this can be done by using the expression of the values directly or by using the cell address reference. For doing this the symbol required is = which the prefix symbol used for any type of formula calculations

For example : =10+20*30


In the above excel sheet we have written the formula with the help of cell address and the result is shown the cell D1

Using calculation we have 2 type of cell reference, they are Absolute cell reference and other is Relative cell reference. The first in it used is directly by specifying the cell address directly like A1, B2 with symbol like =A1+B1*C2. The result of this cell can be copied to other cell where every this formula is dragged with the mouse. The second in it used is indirectly by specifying the cell address the each cell address has $(dollar) symbol in front of column alphabet and row number for example (A1) is represented in it like $A$1. If it used for the calculation the result of can be found in respective cell address but it cannot be copied to other cell because the result of first cell value will be copied to other cell as it is.


The second method is Function method. In excel we have few in built functions which are also used for calculating the values in the cell but they are restricted to one type of calculations only like we have sum functions to find the sum of values in the given cell address or direct values given within the () of the sum functions.

For example =sum(a1+b1+c1) or =sum(a1:e1) or =sum(10+20+30)

To have functions in excel we have follow this step.

Insert ƒ  Function (with the symbol to it as fx )

When we select this option a window will be displayed it looks like this:

This window(Paste Function) has 2 parts on is the Function Category part which as name of all main category of functions like Financial, Math & Trig, Data & Time, Statistical and etc. It has second window also in it we can see the sub function name of the select main function category like if we selected Math & Trig the sub function will displayed like sum, sin, tan, cos, abs and etc,,.

1)If consider the category as Math & Trig its few sub functions are follows:


Function Name






Returns the absolute value of a number, a number without its sign




Returns the cosine of an angle




Returns e raised to the power of a given number




Returns the factorial of a number, equal to 1*2*3*….*number




Returns the result of a number raised to a power




Returns the sine of an angle




Returns square root of a number




……. NumberN)

Add all the number in a range of cells




Returns the tangent of an angle





















2)If consider the category Statistical as its few sub functions are follows:


Function Name







Returns the average(arithmetic mean) of its arguments, which can be numbers or names or arrays or reference that contains number




Counts the number of cell that contain numbers and numbers within the list of arguments.




Returns the k-th largest value in a data set




Returns the largest value in a set of values. Ignores logical values and text




Returns the smallest value in a set of values. Ignores logical values and text




Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set




Returns the most frequently occurring or repetitive value in an array or range of data




Returns the median or the number in the middle of the set of given numbers.















3) If consider the category Date and Time as its few sub functions are follows:


Function Name






Returns the serial number that represents a particular date.




Returns the serial number of the current date. The serial number is the date-time code used by Microsoft Excel for date and time calculations.



NOW( )

Returns the serial number of the current date and time.




Returns the year corresponding to a date. The year is returned as an integer in the range 1900-9999.




Returns the month of a date represented by a serial number. The month is given as an integer, ranging from 1 (January) to 12 (December).




Returns the day of a date, represented by a serial number. The day is given as an integer ranging from 1 to 31.




Returns the hour of a time value. The hour is given as an integer, ranging from 0 (12:00 A.M.) to 23 (11:00 P.M.).




Returns the seconds of a time value. The second is given as an integer in the range 0 (zero) to 59.




Returns the minutes of a time value. The minute is given as an integer, ranging from 0 to 59.



















4) If consider the category Logical as its few sub functions are follows:


Function Name






Returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE.

Logical_test: is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE.

Value_if_true: is the value that is returned if logical_test is TRUE.

Value_if_false: is the value that is returned if logical_test is FALSE




Returns the logical value FALSE.




Returns the logical value TRUE.



AND(logical1,logical2, …)

Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE; returns FALSE if one or more arguments is FALSE.




Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE; returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE.




Reverses the value of its argument. Use NOT when you want to make sure a value is not equal to one particular value.

The IF functions can be used with the help of the Comparison operators, they are as follows :

You can compare two values with the following operators. When two values are compared by using these operators, the result is a logical value, either TRUE or FALSE.





= (equal sign)

Equal to


> (greater than sign)

Greater than


< (less than sign)

Less than


>= (greater than or equal to sign)

Greater than or equal to


<= (less than or equal to sign)

Less than or equal to


<> (not equal to sign)

Not equal to


The IF function can use the AND , OR and NOT logical function it .

The details of AND Function is as follows: AND(logical1,logical2, …)

Logical1, logical2, …   are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE.

The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or the arguments must be arrays or references that contain logical values.

If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored.

If the specified range contains no logical values, AND returns the #VALUE! error value.

The details of OR Function is as follows: OR(logical1,logical2,…)

Logical1,logical2,…   are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE.

The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or in arrays or references that contain logical values.

If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored.

If the specified range contains no logical values, OR returns the #VALUE! error value.

You can use an OR array formula to see if a value occurs in an array. To enter an array formula, press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER in Microsoft Excel for Windows or +ENTER in Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh.




















5) If consider the category Text as its few sub functions are follows:


Function Name






CONCATENATE (text1,text2,…)

Joins several text strings into one text string.




Converts a value to text in a specific number format.




Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words. Use TRIM on text that you have received from another application that may have irregular spacing.




Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.




Converts text to uppercase.




LEN returns the number of characters in a text string.




Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter. Converts all other letters to lowercase letters.




MID returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify.




Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. The returned code corresponds to the character set used by your computer.



CONCATENATE (“rama”,”krishna”)








Trim(” Rama “)


Text(2.715, “$0.00”)


MID(“I am a good boy”,8,15)

good boy




Create a chart

You can create either an embedded chart or a chart sheet.

Select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart.

If you want the column and row labels to appear in the chart, include the cells that

contain them in the selection.

Click Chart Wizard.

Follow the instructions in the Chart Wizard.

Alt + Insert + Chart

This symbol will be displayed in the Standard Toolbar of Excel.

The total drawing of the chart requires 4 steps After the selection of the Chart option in the Insert Menu.

The Step 1 in it is selection of the C