POLS 2910 Take home test

Take Home Test
Employee Discrimination
The news article by Lu (2015) summarizes a case of discrimination by Canadian pilots who are using their union to prevent the employment of foreign pilots. Employee discrimination is a serious violation of the international human rights and privileges. The concept of employment discrimination refers to any form of discrimination in terms of race, sex, or religion among others. In this case, the Canadian pilots perpetrated discrimination in terms of national l origin (Besley & Payne, 2013). Apart from the case of the Canadian pilots, there are have been reported numerous cases of discrimination across the world. For instance, in South Africa, mine owners only hires black employees as they demands for lower wages. To deal with the issue, the majority white people pleaded with the government to enact laws that restricted the rights of the blacks to work.
Considering the alarming rates of discrimination, the government should internet to offer fairness and equity in the society. Most importantly, the government should enact stricter laws to prevent any form of discrimination in the society. In the U.S, the citizens were highly affected by discrimination. After the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the level of employment discrimination reduced significantly. In addition, any U. S employer who engages in discrimination faces stricter punishment as well as jail term. According to Lu (2015), Hudicourt could face some employee discrimination charges from Sunwing Airlines. It is admirable that Sunwing has stood firm on his decision hire foreign pilots on its temporary basis program. The program is critical to the need to inject diversity in order to the workplace. Diversity brings about innovation and cooperation among the employees from different backgrounds and races. The lack of diversity in the employee markets reduces the quality of potential candidates due to the minimal competition.
There are exists various implications of the discrimination both at the workplace and in the society. Firstly, discrimination leads to a poor work atmosphere. Unlike the arguments by the Canadian pilots that there are qualified Canadian pilots to take part in the temporary program, they would lead to adverse results in the company. Today, the workplace should be characterized with multicultural diversity in which all the employees are treated fairly. The lack of diverse employees creates monotony in the workplace that leads to demoralization of the employees. The employment programs should be meant to employee’s people irrespective of their nationality. Most importantly, employment discrimination could lead to overconfidence of the existing employees in the company. This hampers teamwork and cooperation and thus, affecting the smooth functioning of the organization. A study by Lu (2015) indicated that firms experienced lower job motivation and satisfaction when there was reported cases of discrimination.
Employment discrimination also leads to loss of productivity. This is because such discriminatory events lead to the loss of time and focus. It is important to understand that discrimination does not only affect the victims, but usually takes lead in the company’s meetings (Shapiro, 2012). The time and resources used in discussion employee discrimination and instituting alternative measures could have been used in promoting performance of the organization. Similarly, the loss of morale leads to reduced productivity.
Moreover, employee discrimination has significant implications on the societal and moral values of the country. The federal and state governments are required to support diversity in the workplace. Any campaigns against diversity in the employees question the morals and ethical values of the people. This could also translate to increased unemployment rates, since some companies may be willing to succumb to the pressure from the interested groups. For example, Sunwing was committed to his goal of promoting diversity in its workplace in spite of the threats from the Canadian union of pilots. If the union had remained quiet, Sunwing might have eventually reverted to employing Canadian pilots in the temporary. However, the bad image of employee discrimination created by the union led to the Sunwing protesting against employing the Canadian pilots (Lu, 2015). In such instances, the government faces the threats of increased unemployment rates in the society. Most importantly, the employee discrimination claims lead to the adverse implications that questioned the Canadian’s government to uphold the human rights on discrimination.
Hudicourt also faces possible litigation expenses. When Sunwing decides to take the matter to the court, Hudicourt will incur increased associated with ligation of the discrimination claims. Some of the costs including the expenses of investigating the cases, lawyer fees, and time lost away from productive work to offer testimony in the legal proceedings. For instances, such litigations may be lengthy and complex. This leads to more time wastage for Hudicourt as well as the loss of money for the Union (Dipboye & Colella, 2013). Apart from the litigation costs, there are punitive and compensatory damages that could imposed on them, if they failed to win the case. Based on the facts, Hudicourt does not have any chance of winning the case.
In addition, Hudicourt faces imminent sanctions and penalties on the violations of international provisions on employee discrimination. If the laws prohibit any form of discrimination, it would be illegal to support discrimination of certain group of people in the society. The Canadian Union of pilots could lose their credibility and reputation as the representatives. Since, their claims preventing foreign pilots working in Canada is outrageous and immoral (Shapiro, 2012). The employee discrimination instances leads to the loss of finances for the parties involved. Therefore, these explain some of the possible implications of employee discrimination of foreigners by the Canadian pilots.

Besley, T., & Payne, A. A. (2013). Implementation of anti-discrimination policy: Does judicial selection matter?. American law and economics review, 15(1), 212-251.
Dipboye, R. L., & Colella, A. (2013). Discrimination at work: The psychological and organizational bases. London, UK: Psychology Press.
Lu, V. (2015, May 4). Pilots want airlines to curb use of temporary foreign workers. Canada: The Canadian Press.
Shapiro, J. E. (2012). Employee benefits law: The hidden gap enabling sexual orientation Discrimination in Employment. Cardozo JL & Gender, 19, 511.

Response to Chapter 8 I appreciate the importance of chapter 8 in providing critical discussions

Response to Chapter 8
I appreciate the importance of chapter 8 in providing critical discussions on social behavior. Through the introductory part, I learned that social behavior involves how to understand people’s interactions with other persons in the society. Proximal and distal causes are useful models towards understanding people’s behaviors. Most importantly, I think the discussion of aggression is suitable in getting a better understanding of people’s behaviors. Since, aggression involves the deliberate actions to harm another person.
Moreover, I was able to obtain a better understanding of the intention and the behavior of the individuals in aggressive situations. Personally, I support the theories of aggression that includes the biological approach, the behaviorist approach, the psychodynamic approach, the humanistic approach, and the cognitive approach. I also recognize the impacts of media encouraging violence behaviors. As discussed in the chapter 8, I think the current technological innovations and advancements lead to aggressive actions in the society such as media violent images.
Under chapter 8 discussion, I was exposed to some of the current experiments and cases that promote the study of social behavior. I enjoy learning and understanding Stanford prison experiment as it introduced some of the pertinent psychological issues in social behavior. It is clear that Zimbardo the lead psychologist sought to perform an experiment to understand the impacts of becoming a prisoner or a guard (Cherry 2). Thus, I observed that power strongly influences the social behavior of people in the society.
Powerful people usually possess some control over other persons. I learned that persons who possess power or some authority tend to act aggressively against the powerless individuals within their control. Most importantly, I realized that people could endure certain hardships in life that changes their social behavior. This includes situations and circumstances of brutality and aggression. Therefore, I agree with the findings of the Stanford experiment in understanding the social behavior in the society.

Part I (Individual Work) I chose the piece of artwork attached

Part I (Individual Work)
I chose the piece of artwork attached. The piece of artwork depicts a picture showing a woman and two men reflecting a situation of aggression. Before the instance happened, a woman was engaging in a sexual affair with young man. Based on the picture, the young man seems more build up and was carrying a bow and arrow that appears scattered in the floor when they caught. It seems that the woman was engaging in an infidelity affair without the husband’s knowledge. However, the husband was lucky enough to catch them on the act.
Both the woman and the young man were feeling some sexual attraction towards each other and thought the husband would not catch them. For instance, the woman was well aware that the husband had travelled somewhere far. Thus, they felt they had adequate time to enjoy themselves before he comes back. However, they were caught in the act and the husband is punishing the young man on the floor of the room they were caught. The man seems to be the husband of the woman who is next to him pleading for the young man. The husband is more agitated by the actions of the young man. Normally, it is not expected that the young men should engage in sexual affairs with married women. It is an immoral behavior in the society. As a result, the man is punishing the young to warn him on repeating the same mistake.
The woman is terrified that his husband might injury or kill the young man. On the other hand, the man wants to punish the young man severely to serve as a warning. The young man is ashamed and terrified for the worst. The future of their marriage relationships is hanging on a balance. The man might decide to divorce her wife, since infidelity is a serious concern in marriages.
• I ignored the title and original story of the painting. I consider Cupid as a young man.

Intro to Psychology Reading response

Chapter 7
Some of the important ideas and concepts I learned from the reading assignment include personality, gender role development, perspectives on personality, and the concept of gender role development. I think the various perspectives on personality exposes the learners to better understanding and interpretation of development. While, I discovered how the idea of gender role development explains the imminent challenges affecting the research on development. These ideas and concepts are critical in understanding the various perspectives and impacts on development.
I think that it is important for the class to discuss the impacts of heredity and environment interactions to promote development. This is because I learned that the environmental factors are crucial in personal growth and development. Most of the developmental characteristics and abilities can be traced to the hereditary features of the humans. For example, I think that the children a likely to have some parental traits. Therefore, I appreciate significant on a class discussion on the influence of heredity and environmental factors on human development.
The discussion on the five perspectives of personality was the most sensible part in the reading assignment. I think that the authors had a clear understanding of the five approaches on personality. When I opened the reading assignment, the five approaches on personality were visible and easy to memorize. The five approaches on personality helped in explaining the complex nature of personality in the development of the humans (Glassman and Hadad 354). Apart from all, the section provides clear illustrations and examples to support an in depth understanding of the concept of personality.
I was confused with the methods of studying development part in the reading assignment. The part did not provide clear organization and descriptions of the various steps involved in the studying on development. Another major concern in the section is the rhetorical questions asked in the second paragraph making section even more confusing. The figurative representation was more useful in understanding development, but lacked clear and detailed explanations. The authors should have organized the different methods of studying development well to enhance understanding.

Work Cited
Glassman, E. William., and Hadad, Marilyn. Approaches to psychology.New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Print.

Assignment #2: Profile of a Program or Organization (15% of final grade) (850-950 words)

Assignment #2: Profile of a Program or Organization (15% of final grade)
(850-950 words)

Erin Todey
Instructor E. Todey
English 150
30 January 2014

Outline for Assignment #2: Profile of a Program or Organization

1. Introduction of the program/organization or event
a. What does the reader need to know at the beginning of the paper? How can you “set the stage” for what you plan to write about?
b. Explicit thesis statement
2. Transition from introduction to body paragraph 1
3. Body paragraph 1 – What is the main idea of this paragraph?
a. Topic sentence
b. Provide specific examples/evidence/research that you will use
4. Transition from body paragraph 1 to body paragraph 2
5. Body paragraph 2 – What is the main idea of this paragraph?
a. Topic sentence
b. Provide specific examples/evidence/research that you will use
6. Transition from body paragraph 2 to body paragraph 3
7. Body paragraph 3 – What is the main idea of this paragraph?
a. Topic sentence
b. Provide specific examples/evidence/research that you will use
8. Transition from body paragraph 3 to body paragraph 4
9. Body paragraph 4 – What is the main idea of this paragraph?
a. Topic sentence
b. Provide specific examples/evidence/research that you will use
10. Transition from body paragraph 4 to body paragraph 5
11. Body paragraph 5 – What is the main idea of this paragraph ?
a. Topic sentence
b. Provide specific examples/evidence/research that you will use
12. Concluding paragraph
a. What can you leave your reader to think about?
b. How can you tie all your ideas back to the introduction and your thesis statement?

Works Cited (MLA)

Due: Monday, February 23rd
Conferences during Week 5
Presentations in Week 6/7 (5% of final grade)

This project is your opportunity to explore a program or organization of your choice. Important to this project is an inquiring attitude and the ability to provide useful and relevant information efficiently. In Assignment #2 you will not be relying solely on your personal experience as the primary material and support for your main points; you will be seeking outside background information to help you explore a program or organization.

Planning and Drafting

You will first examine the public documents (a website, a brochure, a mission statement) about a organization or program to determine how these documents present the people and the practices of that organization. Be sure to examine the mission statements of all of these examples. What picture of these entities do their public documents provide of them?

Ask yourself these questions to help you explore your topic:
 Why would my audience be interested in reading this paper? How can I engage them?
 What details will help my audience understand the place or organization?
 What visuals would help my audience understand my campus place or organization?

Evaluation Criteria
Your paper needs to satisfy these criteria. The grade is based not just on whether a feature is present or not, but on how well it has been integrated into your paper.

• Thoughtful and perceptive treatment of topic; original approach; scope sufficiently narrow.
• Purpose for writing is clear (explore or inform) and consistent throughout the paper.
• Clear sense of audience and consistent attention to audience’s needs. –Introduction engages audience’s interest in knowing more about the topic or making use of information.
• Content is fully developed, relevant, and substantial; detail carefully chosen and specific.
• Includes a visual to interest and engage readers.
• Focuses on a precise, interesting and insightful point or thesis that guides development and organization.
• Introduction provides overview of organization. Conclusion sums up key points.
• Sequence follows a logical arrangement for this material appropriately organized into paragraphs. Relationship among ideas is clear; coherent; transitional devices used to guide reader
• Expression is clear and concise. Good choices in use of dialogue, details, visuals.
• When material is used from an outside source, it is informally cited.
• Vocabulary is precise, vivid and appropriate word choice
• Conventions/Correctness: Writing is free from sentence-level errors and word choice errors.
• Consistency in typography, headings. Visuals are integrated within text.
• Appearance of document adapted to needs and expectations of audience.

National School Lunch Program (NSLP)
1. Introduction
a. The NSLP is meal program funded by the federal government operating among the various schools in the U.S. (Poti & Popkin, 2011). The paper will provide a comprehensive analysis of the impacts of the NSLP among schools, more so the health of the students in the schools. It will also provide strong research evidence and examples to evaluate the significance of the NSLP in the country.
b. An analysis of the NSLP will explain the nature and operations of the program as well as the benefits received by the students with access to the NSLP.
2. After an understanding of the background of the NSLP, it is important to document a detailed discussion on the nature and benefits of the program in the society.
3. First, it is important to understand the operation of the NSLP in the society.
a. Schools could take part in the school lunch program by registering with the U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA, 2014).
b. Schools and various institutions that decided to engage in the lunch program would get cash subsidies and nutritious foods from the USDA for all meals served. The schools are required to serve lunch meals that satisfy the federal requirements (Hiatt & Klerman, 2002). Most importantly, the foods offered must be free or low price to the eligible students. For example, the school administrators could be refunded for snacks served to students until age 18 in the enrichment programs. As a result, the paragraph explains the operations of the National School Lunch program among the schools.
4. The operations of the NSLP are crucial, but it is necessary to understand food safety measures imposed in the program.
5. Food safety is a crucial aspect in the NSLP.
a. USDA has established various measures to improve the safety of the foods in the program.
b. Over the years, the USDA marketing department has developed various programs in providing schools with a continuous supply of safe foods. In 2002, the department established the vendor certification for the supply of beef under the NSLP. This helped in reducing diseases associated with beef and increased fat content in the meals (Gunderson, 2003). Another illustration is the enforcement of continuous auditing among the agents of grading certification of meat supply.
6. Moreover, the NSLP offers various benefits to the children as well as to the overall society.
7. The benefits of taking part in the NSLP.
a. The NSLP has been instrumental in providing nutritious meals to children from poor families as well as reducing costs of foods among other benefits.
b. Among the parents, the program provides a suitable alternative of obtaining nutritionally based meals at low and affordable prices. According to Gundersen, Kreider and Pepper (2012), they argued that the program helped the schools in improving the students’ ability to learn. Research studies by Gunderson (2003) and Levine (2011) suggested that children with access to nutritious meals are more disciplined and attentive in the class sessions.
8. Conclusion
a. Do rising costs of operating the lunch program straining the federal budgetary allocations on other education programs?
b. In summary, the NSLP is supported by the federal government in providing nutritious meals to children in the public and nonprofit private schools. Such schools are required to register with the USDA. The program operates through the schools taking part in the lunch program by obtaining cash subsidies and nutritious foods from the USDA. In addition, the USDA (2014) has made efforts to improve the safety of foods in the program. For example, the establishment of vendor certification and supply chain control regulations controlled the supply of foods in the program. NSLP is beneficial in offering nutritious lunch foods to children at low prices.

Gundersen, C., Kreider, B., & Pepper, J. (2012). The impact of the National School Lunch Program on child health: A nonparametric bounds analysis. Journal of Econometrics, 166(1), 79-91.
Gunderson, W. G. (2003).The National School Lunch Program: Background and development. Hauppauge, N Y: Nova Publishers.
Hiatt, L., & Klerman, A. J. (2002). State monitoring of National School Lunch Program nutritional content: Without special title. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Publication.
Levine, S. (2011). School lunch politics: The surprising history of America’s favorite welfare program. Princeton, N J: Princeton University Press.
Poti, J. M., & Popkin, B. M. (2011). Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977-2006. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(8), 1156-1164.
USDA (2014). United States Department of Agriculture. Food and Nutrition Service. National school lunch program (NSLP). Retrieved from http://www.fns.usda.gov/nslp/national-school-lunch-program-nslp.

HC3152 E-Business Applications Assessment paper

Unit Title E-Business Applications
Assessment Type Individual Assignment
Assessment Title
Purpose of the assessment (with
ULO Mapping) As part of your individual assignment, you are required to develop a report based on the following article:
1. ‘How e-commerce companies are using Artificial Intelligence to drive Higher Sales & User Experience.’
2. ‘How e-commerce companies are using Artificial Intelligence: https://becominghuman.ai/how-ecommerce-companies-are-using-ai-to-drive-higher-sales-user-experience-20d9d9bbb2b0
Students will be able to:
1. Critically analyse information technology issues for e-business and provide solutions to these issues using their knowledge of information technology and practical techniques in e-business applications.
2. Apply theoretical and practical knowledge of Information Technology in the leverage and adoption of e-business applications to provide competitive advantage and strategic solutions for businesses.
3. Understand the ICT profession in e-business
4. Communicate using effective oral and written communication tools, act in a professional manner
5. Review and describe the major privacy, legal, ethical and societal issues with respect to managing digital information and e-business
Weight 25% of the total assessments
Total Marks 25
Word limit 2500-3000 words
Due Date Week 10
Submission Guidelines • All work must be submitted on Blackboard by the due date along with a completed Assignment Cover Page.
• The assignment must be in MS Word format, 1.5 spacing, 11-pt Calibri (Body) font and 2 cm margins on all four sides of your page with appropriate section headings.
• Reference sources must be cited in the text of the report, and listed appropriately at the end in a reference list using Harvard or IEEE referencing style.
The instructions to complete your assignment are as follow:
1. Select an E-commerce business to be the focus of this assignment from the below list only:
eBay Australia Kogan.com Catch Dan Murphy’s
Amazon Australia Big W Ozsale The Iconic
Woolworths Officeworks EB Games Supercheap Auto
JB Hi-Fi Chemist Warehouse Kmart Booktopia
Coles Harvey Norman Myer ASOS
Ali Express The Good Guys Target Crazy Sales
2. Briefly describe the current operation of your selected E-commerce store.
3. Why is the Artificial Intelligence important for your business survival?
4. How your chosen business uses Artificial Intelligence?
5. Conduct a further research in the peer reviewed recent journal articles in ProQuest or other reputable journal database to find at least Five (5) articles relevant to the assignment.
6. The ideas from these articles will be incorporated into the discussion in the main assignment.
7. An attachment to the assignment will list the correct Harvard referencing of each of the journal articles and a brief outline of the key points in the journal article that are relevant to the assignment. Do not summarise the journal article. Identify the key points and briefly describe them and their relevance to the assignment.
8. You should review and refine your refinement and polishing of the ideas and the communication of ideas, prior to the submission of the report.
9. Your report must lead to recommendations on how your selected E-Commerce store can become more effective through the use of internet technologies.
10. The structure of the report should be as follows:
• Holmes Assignment Cover page
• Table of Contents
• Introduction
• Body of the report
• Conclusions and recommendations
• References
• Appendices
HC3152 Individual Assignment Marking Rubric
Introduction /20% Directly relevant
/(16-20) Somewhat relevant
/(11-15) Remotely related
/(6-10) Totally unrelated
Content /40% Good organization; points are logically ordered; sharp sense of beginning and end
/(32-40) Organized; points are somewhat jumpy; sense of
beginning and ending
Some organization; points jump around; beginning and ending are unclear
Poorly organized; no logical progression; beginning and ending are vague
Quality of Information /20% Supporting details specific to subject
/(16-20) Some details are nonsupporting to the subject
Details are somewhat sketchy.
Do not support topic
/(6-10) Unable to find specific details
Grammar, Usage,
Mechanics, Spelling /10% No errors
/(8-10) Only one or two errors
/(5-7) More than two errors
/(3-4) Numerous errors distract from understanding
Referencing /10% References are consistently correct using Harvard style.
No missing citations.
/(8-10) Generally correct referencing (if called for) using Harvard style.
/(5-7) References are used, but not used consistently
/(3-4) References (if called for) are missing or do not use correct referencing style.
Assignment Score ____________/100 * Convert to 25% = Final Score _______________/25_
How e-commerce companies are using AI to drive Higher Sales & User Experience.
Published on 28 February 2019 in Becoming Human: Artificial Intelligence Magazine, Gaurav Raturi
Artificial intelligence is one of the hottest topics in this ever-changing world. AI is a way ahead to offer the industry with innovative and smart business solutions. It is adding valuable elements to the e-commerce platforms to stay in the market.
Digital marketing or e-commerce has taken the business prospect to the next level with the help of AI technology.
Advancement is to such an extent that speakers are talking, vendors are selling, and e-commerce is growing. The user experience and brand performance are getting equilibrium as Artificial Intelligence technology is changing a tedious working pattern. Retailers, manufacturers and digital startups are setting a new example in the industry.
Due to the constant competition for customers, brands are enabling AI in their enterprise. AI is one of the fastest succession of technological breakthroughs due to smart solutions that are transforming the e-commerce industry.
Artificial Intelligence transforming the traditional shopping experience
Gone are the days when the users look for an e-commerce store. Now it’s time for e-commerce platforms enabled with an Artificial Intelligence experience that is changing the business model of many brands. The advancement of new technologies has completely changed the current scenario of the industry.
Hence, integrating Artificial Intelligence in e-commerce has raised the marketing standard.
The AI applications range from the ability to analyze data sets, identifying patterns and creating a personalized experience. This creates a unique approach that is more efficient than any human being.
Over the last few years, marketing standards are touching different heights in the various sectors. AI has empowered the users with the many high tech experiences ranging from stores to websites and from chatbots to voice assistants. Such evolution has made the consumers approach the brand services any time from any form. AI right from the starting disrupted the entire e-commerce industry with smart solutions.
The impact is everlasting that will have enormous implications in the way retailers will sell their products and services hassle less.
Advance Visual Search Engine
Recently Artificial Intelligence introduced the visual Search engine in the e-commerce sector. It is one of the most stimulating trends that helps the user to discover what they want with just a single click.
Hence, we can say that AI is a driven technology that enables visual search. With a simple click, the user can get appropriate results. An image can be helpful to find better color, size, and quality to identify product names and brands on the search engine. Based on the image users can get the desired results.
Personalized Recommendations
AI is helping by suggesting free recommendation either by text or pop up. Searches related product is tracked and accordingly, suggestion approaches the users. Therefore, product recommendation feels to offer a personal touch to the users. The search engine analyses with AI identifies user’s preferences related to the brands they follow.
The recommendation of the products is the reflection of the user’s activities on the website and past purchases. This helps the users to find the best of what they are looking for.
As a result, the users rate the brands and their services that are directly proportional to the ROI.
Voice Assistance
As technology is growing it is making the shopping experience worthy. AI is offering customers more interactive and pleasant solutions. The voice assistance is here for smooth user experience in real time. Big giants are giving the users the power of voice for better recommendations and analysis.
To make the process more hassle less the user doesn’t need to type every time due to the voice assistant on the e-commerce platform. As a result, it offers more personal and human touch to the online shopping experience.
Bottom line
Artificial Intelligence enabled applications with smart capabilities are attempting to solve real-world problems. E-commerce industry with the help of Artificial Intelligence solutions can be a game changer. Brands are moving beyond customer daily utilities to help them to achieve the best possible results. AI technology offers a consistent and personalized experience to the users as well to the brands and its services.

Disease Phenylketonuri

Disease Phenylketonuri

Dr. Tran: I have informed Dr.poole about your predicament and am here to ensure that you clearly understand to details about PKU.
Mr. Lee: Thanks Dr.Tran. We have lots of questions concerning our condition.
Dr, Tran: Okay, you can go ahead.
Mrs. Lee: what brings about disease PKU?
Dr, Tran: To begin with, PKU basis from mutations of a gene that aids an enzyme known as phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is cardinal for the conversion of amino acid phenylalanine into other substances needed by the body. In instances where PAH gene, is faulty, the body is unable to break down phenylalanine (Park, et al 1998).. Amino acids aid manufacturing of proteins, however, phenylalanine causes harm if it builds up in the body. Precisely, nerve cells found in the brain are very sensitive to phenylalanine. Diverse PAH mutations have consequences of incomplete phenylalanine. Some mutations cause non-PKU hyperphenylalaninemia. However, there are silent mutations that have no an effect. Foods with high amounts of proteins should be avoided as they bring about a buildup of phenylalanine. It buildup to high levels results to the symptoms of PKU.
Mrs. Lee: what are the genetics causes of PKU?
Dr, Tran: the second scenario involves genes, a human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each chromosome carries with it the DNA. DNA is actually the blue print meant for the synthesis of diverse proteins within the body. The DNA has a segment responsible for storing the blue print coding(Park, et al 1998).. The coding is for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase that is found in the 12th chromosome. In a case a parent carries a faulty gene; they are referred to as carriers. However, since the parent contains an upright or a normal gene, they lack signs as well as symptoms of PKU. Autosomal recessive trend of inheritance take place when the PKU is transferred to the infant as an end result of parents being carriers. Consequently, in a case where both parents are carriers but PKU fails to manifest itself, then chances of their biological child getting PKU during birth is 25%.
Mrs Lee: how do mutations affect the role of proteins and why?
Dr. Tran: PKU results from mutations a gene. It is this gene that helps an enzyme referred to as phenylalanine hydroxylase (Park, et al 1998).. This is the enzyme that is vital so as to convert amino acid phenylalanine to other products required by the body. Diverse mutations will result to incomplete phenylalanine. This will cause harm to amino acids consequently amino acids are responsible for the manufacturing of proteins. Phenylalanine is present in all proteins. Our bodies use an enzyme known as phenylalanine hydroxylase so as to change phenylalanine to tyrosine, a non important amino acid. The body requires tyrosine to develop neuro transmitters, like epinephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine.

Mr. Lee: How does the mutant molecule affect the other cellular molecules?
DR. Tran: PKU is caused by a fault in the PAH gene. The PAH gene aids the making of phenylalanine hydroxylase, this enzyme breaks down phenylalanine (Park, et al 1998). Consumption of high protein foods can results to a buildup of phenylalanine. This is the building block of proteins. If it builds up to harmful levels then it will cause some of the symptoms of PKU which normally vary from mild to severe.
Mr. Lee: we are really glad that you evaluated and gave us a detailed information about PKU. Thank you.

Park, Y. S., Seoung, C. S., Lee, S. W., Oh, K. H., Lee, D. H., & Yim, J. (1998). Identification of three novel mutations in Korean phenylketonuria patients: R53H, N207D, and Y325X. Human mutation, 11(S1), S121-S122.

Science COSC2676 Programming Fundamentals for Scientists Assignment

School of Science
COSC2676 Programming Fundamentals for Scientists
Assignment 2 (v.2458718)
Assessment Type: Individual assignment; no group or collaborative work. Submit online via
Canvas→Assignments→Assignment 2. Marks awarded for meeting requirements as closely as possible.
Clarifications/updates may be made via announcements/relevant discussion forums.
Due date: 23:59, 15/Sep/2019; Deadlines will not be advanced but they may be extended. Please check
Canvas→Assignments→Assignment 2 for the most up to date information.
As this is a major assignment in which you demonstrate your understanding, a university standard late penalty of 10% per
each working day applies for up to 5 working days late (after which the submission will not be accepted), unless special
consideration has been granted.
Weighting: 8 marks (excluding bonus marks)
1. Overview
There is no book containing the music to every song that will be written. There is no book containing the answers to every
mathematical calculation that we will need to perform. Similarly, there is no book, set of lecture slides, video, etc. that will give a
programmer (you) the solutions to every programming problem. A programmer is able to take fundamental programming concepts
and, with the experience they have gained from analysis, evaluation and problem solving, put them together to solve new problems.
For this assignment, assume that you are a programmer creating a small program of your own choosing to add to your portfolio of
simple Python applications. With this project you aim to demonstrate to potential employers or clients how you can:
1. Create a small tool or utility program using (exclusively) a limited set of fundamental code concepts (detailed in section 4.1 below)
2. You are able to analyse and evaluate in your code documentation (see requirements in section 4.2 below).
Note: You must not just “throw in the concepts” to your program just because they need to be there; it should be clear from the
code why a certain concept should be there and you must further explain these through your comments. You will also need debug
your code on your own and document any issues, etc. You are given marks on your ability to fulfill all requirements of this document.
There are code requirements (6 marks) and documentation requirements (2 marks) for a total of 8 marks.
Develop this assignment in an iterative fashion (as opposed to completing it in one sitting) and get feedback during your practical
classes as you go. You can and should get started now as there are concepts from the week 1 lessons that you can incorporate from
now itself.
If there are questions, you must ask via the relevant Canvas discussion forums in a general manner (replicate your problem in a
different context in isolation before posting).
Page 1 of 5
2. Assessment Criteria
This assessment will determine your ability to:
1. Follow coding, convention and behavioral requirements provided in this document and in the lessons.
2. Independently solve a problem by using programming concepts taught over the first several weeks of the course.
3. Write and debug Python code independently.
4. Document code.
5. Ability to provide references where due.
6. Meeting deadlines.
7. Seeking clarification from your “supervisor” (instructor) when needed via discussion forums.
8. Create a program by recalling concepts taught in class, understanding and applying concepts relevant to solution, analysing
components of the problem, evaluating different approaches.
3. Learning Outcomes
This assessment is relevant to the following Learning Outcomes:
1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic concepts, syntax and control structures in programming
2. Devise solutions to simple computing problems under specific requirements
3. Encode the devised solutions into computer programs and test the programs on a computer
4. Demonstrate understanding of standard coding conventions and ethical considerations in programming.
4. Assessment details
Note: Please ensure that you have read sections 1-3 of this document before going further.
Your code must meet the following code requirements (section 4.1) and documentation requirements (section 4.2).
In places where this specification may not tell you how exactly you should implement a certain feature, the programmer (you) need
to use your judgment to choose and apply the most appropriate concepts from class materials. Follow answers given by your “client”
or “supervisor” (you instructor) under Canvas→Discussions→’Assignment 2’ when in doubt.
4.1) The following code requirements/concepts must be applied to demonstrate your knowledge of lesson materials and
approaches; must refer to corresponding rows in the rubric (section 9). [1+1+1+1+1+1=6 marks]
C1. Code presentation and format – The program must be entirely in one Python (.py) file. The name of the file must be chosen
to match the application (default names such as AssignmentX.py) will not be accepted. Names of identifiers (including
functions, variables, etc.) must be descriptive. Must not include any unused/irrelevant code (even inside comments); what is
submitted must be considered the final product.
C2. Data types and piped inputs – Must demonstrate concepts of piped inputs as shown in lecture explanations. The program
must process at least one numerical input and store it in a variable of a compatible numerical type along the programming homework help process. If your program uses images for inputs/outputs, you must use ImageMagick in the command for conversion to the PGM/PNM
formats. You will need to submit sample input files (permitted file extensions .png, .tiff, .txt or .csv)
C3. elif statements – Must not have redundant conditions.
C4. Exclusively while loops to repeat; no for, recursion, or any other form of repetition. while-loop condition must fail
eventually. Must not use break, continue, return, program termination or similar branching for terminating loops.
C5. Use of Python lists exclusively as data structure(s) and manipulating lists using loops while-loops. Students must
demonstrate their ability to manipulate these lists without using built-in or external modules/functions whenever possible
(refer to lecture examples).
C6. Demonstrate concepts of modular code organisation using multiple functions. When the program is run, there should be a
pathway to run/call all functions.
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4.2) Documentation requirements. Must refer to corresponding rows in the rubric (section 9). [1.5+0.5 marks]
D1. The code comments in this assignment must focus more on the analysis of your approaches and their evaluation instead of
simply translating the Python code to English (see rubric in section 9 of this document; examples will also be given in lessons).
Write comments before code blocks (e.g. before lines that end with a : like defs, ifs, whiles, etc.) and important variable
Explain any code requirements that you have not met and all bugs (situations that might cause the program to crash or behave
abnormally) in the approximate locations they originate within your code. Bugs imposed by limitations in the lesson topics
such as input type mismatches need not be corrected in code but they still must be documented, if they exist. If you do not
have bugs, you must explicitly say that there are none. Tip: A good programmer knows the limits of their program. If doing B2,
explain any standard code requirements that you may have violated due to the bonus requirements.
D2. Line 1 of your .py file must be an example of the command(s) needed to run your program.
4.3) Bonus requirements
You can attempt either B1, B2 or both but to obtain any bonus marks, you must meet all requirements of the nonbonus/standard requirements. The total mark for assignments+weekly work (the non-exam component) is capped at 50 marks;
the exam will be 50 marks.
B1. Submit your final version of the assignment, 1 week before the deadline for +0.5 bonus marks or 2 weeks before the
deadline for +1 bonus mark or 3 weeks before the deadline for +1.5 bonus marks.
B2. Incorporate local/web file reading and/or file writing in the manner shown in the week 7 lecture in to your program. As this
is a bonus requirement, you may need to independently pick up these concepts. If you choose to incorporate the B2 bonus
functionality, your bonus version should be the only version that you must submit. Please do not include multiple versions of
your code in the final submission. (+1 bonus mark).
5. Referencing guidelines
What: This is an individual assignment and all submitted contents must be your own. If you have used sources of information other
than the contents directly under Canvas→Modules or what has been shown in the lectures or practicals, you must give acknowledge
the sources and give references using IEEE referencing style.
Where: Add a code comment near the work to be referenced and include the reference in the IEEE style.
How: To generate a valid IEEE style reference, please use the citethisforme tool if unfamiliar with this style. Add the detailed
reference before any relevant code (within code comments).
6. Submission format
Submit one .py file and any related data files via Canvas→Assignments→Assignment 2. It is the responsibility of the student to
correctly submit their files. Please verify that your submission is correctly submitted by downloading what you have submitted to see
if the files include the correct contents.
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7. Academic integrity and plagiarism (standard warning)
Academic integrity is about honest presentation of your academic work. It means acknowledging the work of others while
developing your own insights, knowledge and ideas. You should take extreme care that you have:
 Acknowledged words, data, diagrams, models, frameworks and/or ideas of others you have quoted (i.e. directly copied),
summarised, paraphrased, discussed or mentioned in your assessment through the appropriate referencing methods,
 Provided a reference list of the publication details so your reader can locate the source if necessary. This includes material
taken from Internet sites.
If you do not acknowledge the sources of your material, you may be accused of plagiarism because you have passed off the work and
ideas of another person without appropriate referencing, as if they were your own.
RMIT University treats plagiarism as a very serious offence constituting misconduct. Plagiarism covers a variety of inappropriate
behaviours, including:
 Failure to properly document a source
 Copyright material from the internet or databases
 Collusion between students
For further information on our policies and procedures, please refer to the University website.
8. Assessment declaration
When you submit work electronically, you agree to the assessment declaration.
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9. Rubric/assessment criteria for marking
Code must be valid, runnable Python to be given a mark (code that bad syntax, pseudocode, incomplete Python code cannot be marked). Run-time errors will incur up to a 50% penalty (run-time errors due to data type mismatches in inputs are
Inadequate Partial Complete (Uses only the concepts covered in class materials for meeting stated criteria)
C1 More than one one of the criteria in the ‘complete’ level
Any one of the criteria in the ‘complete’ level
One file submitted with all required code. Only function declarations are at top-level (e.g. no global variables/lists). File name suits program and is not an
arbitrary or default name. Identifer names are descriptive. Avoids hard-coding when appropriate. Presentation is consistent. Only relevant code and
comments included. All code reachable. Does not use break, continue, or program termination anywhere in the code and does not return from the
middle of functions.
C2 Missing/incorrect use of piped inputs OR some criteria
in the ‘complete’ level missing/incorrect.
Any one of the criteria in the ‘complete’ level missing/incorrect
but demonstrated as a part of meeting overall functional aims
of program.
Input taking and storing demonstrated (does not require data validation). Demonstrates understanding of int vs. float vs. string types where relevant. Data
inputs must not always be of the same size/length; program must be able to handle, for example, images of different dimensions, etc. Above demonstrated
as a part of meeting overall functional aims of program.
C3 Missing/incorrect use of else if
OR some criteria in the ‘complete’ level
Any one of the criteria in the ‘complete’ level missing/incorrect
but contains at least one reachable else if statement
demonstrated as a part of meeting overall functional aims of
Uses if/else/elif appropriately and exlusively for non-repeating conditional execution. Contains at least one reachable elif statement. Conditions do
not include tautologies and pathways are not redundant. Every code block in every if/else/elif structure is reachable. Does not use break, continue
or return or similar inside these blocks. Above demonstrated as a part of meeting overall functional aims of program.
C4 Missing/incorrect use of while loops
OR some criteria in the ‘complete’ level
Meets all criteria of ‘complete’ level except while loops not
used exclusively for repetition (e.g. additionally uses for,
recursion, etc.)
Uses while loops appropriately and exlusively for repetition. Loop condition must describe all situations under which the loop will repeat and condition
must fail eventually. Conditions do not include tautologies. Does not use break, continue or return or similar to terminate loops. Above demonstrated
as a part of meeting overall functional aims of program.
C5 Missing/incorrect use of lists
OR some criteria in the ‘complete’ level
One of the ‘complete’ level criteria not met but uses standard
Python lists as a part of meeting overall functional aims of
Uses standard Python lists exclusively where data structures are needed (no dictionaries, etc.). while-loops are used for traversing lists and all list
manipulation is performed without using other modules/code whenever possible. Demonstrates ability to determine size of list at runtime to handle data
inputs of arbitrary sizes.
C6 Missing/incorrect use of methods
OR some criteria in the ‘complete’ level
At least one method in addition to the ‘main’ method is
present as a part of meeting overall functional aims of the
program but one of the other criteria in the ‘complete’ level
Has at least one function in addition to the ‘main’ function. Functions used in ways to reduce code repetition. Every created function is used in the
program. Control/execution within each function always reaches the very last statement of that function (no spaghetti code; avoids return-like
statements in the middle of blocks, etc.). Methods may contain parameters and/or return values. Above demonstrated as a part of meeting overall
functional aims of program.
D1 Lacks one or more of the ‘partial’ level criteria
documentation not within .py file.
Identifies concepts required and application of each concept is
discussed with respect to the overall aims of the program.
Explains any code requirements that have not been met,
situations that might cause the program to crash or behave
abnormally. Able to identify the approximate locations of any
issues within the code and comments are given in those
locations. Bugs imposed by limitations in the lesson topics
Has an even spread of the above near code blocks and
important variables in plain English where possible.
Further to ‘partial’ level criteria…
Analyses the breaking down of the programming task to smaller parts (e.g. methods and other blocks) and organisation to achieve the overall goals of the
Evaluates strategies used to meet requirements and compares the quality of one approach to another approach. Has an even spread of the above near
code blocks and important variables in plain English possible.
D2 Lacks one or more of the ‘partial’ level criteria
documentation not within .py file.
Includes instructions but lacks some of the detail required for
‘complete’ level.
Includes example of required command to correctly run the program to demonstrate all concepts (must supplement by submitting required input files,
Page 5 of 5


8. There are numerous health related resources such as pharmaceuticals, manpower among other resources. Urban areas in Japan have well distributed health manpower which facilitates fair delivery of health services (Dunn & Dyck, 2000). This is unlike the rural parts of Japan where distribution of health care services has not enhanced equality. The ratio of doctors to population served is wide in rural areas of Japan than in urban areas of Japan (Lönnroth, et al, 2009). With respect to the 2009 health care expenditure in 2009, $333.8 billion were used in the NHI plan. This constitutes 6.6% of Japan’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, Japan plans to increase the expenditure on NHI to reach 10% by the year 2020. This would imply that Japan have to spend over 62.3 trillion yen to fund NHI. By 2035, the total expenditure would get to 13.5%.
9. One of the most important resource in Japan associated with pharmacy involves the pharmacy training and practice policy. In order for one to become a pharmacist in Japan, he or she must undertake a 6-year pharmaceutical training in Japan. This is outlined in the hospital pharmacy program. Additionally, the trained pharmacist must certify the boards and meet their requirements of pharmaceutical practice. He or she must also get a certification from the board as well as license in order to be allowed to practice pharmacy. There is an essential medicine list in Japan that outlines how medication should be done. Pharmacists are needed to comprehend the list so as to foster quality pharmaceutical care services.

Dunn, J. R., & Dyck, I. (2000). Social determinants of health in Canada’s immigrant population: results from the National Population Health Survey.Social science & medicine, 51(11), 1573-1593.
Lönnroth, K., Jaramillo, E., Williams, B. G., Dye, C., & Raviglione, M. (2009). Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: the role of risk factors and social determinants. Social science & medicine, 68(12), 2240-2246.
Marmot, M. (2005). Social determinants of health inequalities. The Lancet,365(9464), 1099-1104.
Marmot, M., Friel, S., Bell, R., Houweling, T. A., Taylor, S., & Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. The Lancet, 372(9650), 1661-1669.

Nursing social stratification


Please answer the following two questions(separately). Please cite TWO references each to a question. Please add link to references. Please answer question separately. Thank you. Social Stratification Question #1: The Chetty study, conducted by Harvard and UC Berkley researchers in 2013, found that Charlotte ranks poorly on factors that most correlate with economic mobility. Of the 50 largest US cities, Charlotte ranked dead last in the odds that our lowest income children and youth will be able to move up the economic ladder as they become adults. In the study, five factors were used to determine inter-generational mobility – segregation, income inequality, school quality, social capital, and family structure. Which factor do you think has the most influence on health status? Does health and health care influence economic mobility? Question #2: The Leading on Opportunity task force report (Links to an external site.) www.leadingonopportunity.org did not address access to and quality of healthcare stating that there is not sufficient evidence to support healthcare as a determinant of economic mobility. In the report, healthcare is discussed in relation to healthy pregnancy outcomes and mental health. After reading the Leading on Opportunity task force report, please write one strategy, one key recommendation, and one implementation tactic (see examples in the report) related to healthcare not already addressed in the report. Do you think health care should have been addressed in the report as a determinant? Please watch the you tube videos. https://www.ted.com/talks Is America Dreaming?: Understanding Social Mobility——–video on you tube View Video on social mobility: View video on America’s forgotten working class by JD. Vance (14 minutes)