Modulation Systems Used In Satellite Communications Ii Computer Science Essay

Satellite is the one of the greatest means of communication carrying a large chuck of voice and data stream from one part of the horizon to the other as compared to other medium. In this modern age, communication satellite networks are an indispensable part of the major telecommunication systems. Satellite interconnects the nodes and provides some better advantages in application than the traditional communication systems such as combine massive data connections, mobile communication and direct connection for last-mile users, television and other broadcasting for public [1]. To provide the optimum quality of services (QoS) different types of design techniques needs to be consider for different purposes like distinct types of modulation and coding (channel and source) techniques are used for specific purpose, link budget calculations, selection of radio frequency (RF) etc. Other dominating factors are: permitted earth station size and complexity, the size and the shape of the service area etc [2].

The objective of this paper is to describe different types of modulations systems using for satellite communications. In this report, first I am trying to give some basic information related to the modulation systems and then bring all possible modulation schemes used in satellite communications.

Modulation:

In general view, modulation is the process where the characteristics (phase, frequency or amplitude) of high frequencies are varied along with baseband information. The baseband signal carries the basic information such as the output of video camera, voice coder or digital television. In practical point of view, it is more convenient to carry the modulation at the intermediate frequency-typically 70MHz [1]. Satellites are usually operate at Gigahertz range of frequency [1].Sometimes Pulse code modulation (PCM) and Pulse amplitude modulation is used to describe modulation process for baseband information [2].

Modulation Systems for Satellite Communications:

We can divide the modulation systems in two broad categories like

Digital Modulation and Analogue Modulation

Different types of analogue modulation are possible like Amplitude Modulation (AM), Frequency Modulation (FM) and the phase Modulation (PM). Digital Modulation is divided into several categories and each of those uses in specific purpose.

Analogue Modulation:

Let consider a sinusoidal wave k(t):

k(t) = J* cos {2*Ï€*f c(t)+α}……………………………..(A)

Where J indicates amplitude, f c(t) denotes carrier frequency and α is the phase of the wave. When high frequency carrier amplitude is changed, then the wave is called amplitude modulated and scheme is known as the amplitude modulation. Likewise when carrier phase or frequency is changed then it called frequency modulated and phase modulation respectively and techniques are known as frequency and phase modulation respectively [1].

Amplitude Modulation In preceding section the definition of AM modulation is given where amplitude of the carrier frequency is changed with information signal. An amplitude modulated signal can be given as

V(t)= J{1+g(t)*cos (2*Ï€*fc) ………………………………(1)

In equation (1),g(t) is the message signal and the fc represents frequency of carrier . J{1+g(t)} is the amplitude of the carrier and it varies accordance with the signal m(t). If g(t) is the sinusoidal signal and Am and fm is the amplitude and the frequency of the g(t) respectively, then it can be written as follows

V(t)= A{1+Am sin2*pi*fm}cos (2*Ï€*fc) ……………….(2)

The efficiency of spectrum of (t) is obtain by expanding equation (3) and it can be shown that there are two side bands in the spectrum like upper and lower. The upper and lower sidebands consists of similar shape of spectrum like message signal g(t) [1]. The main advantage of the AM is those modulated carriers easily detectable by using a simple process called envelop detection. An envelope detector is the simple large time constant RC circuit. But the difficulty is that AM modulation is rarely used for satellite communications because [1]:

An amplitude modulated signal is very susceptible to the signal fluctuation

It requires very high Signal to Noise ratio for desire amount of quality.

AM is used in laser inter-satellite links (ISL) in an alternate form called “ON-OFF” keying.

There are two forms of AM systems:

Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC)

Single Side Band Modulation (SSB)

In DSB-SC, two side bands are transmitter while carrier is omitting. In this case, modulated wave amplitude and the signal amplitude is not same. As a consequence of that it reduces the simplicity of the demodulation in FM. DSB-SC is currently not using for the satellite transmissions but this technique is good for understanding the SSB modulation [1].

SSB is another alternative form of the AM systems. This technique is suitable for the application where the bandwidth is the premium. In AM modulation, both the side bands consist of baseband information and transmission of same information twice showing the redundancy. In this case, SSB removing one sideband so bandwidth of the RF signals is similar base band signal. Sometimes the carrier is also removed then it is called SSB-SC (suppressed carrier) [1]. SSB is detected at the receiver end using synchronous detector. There are two factors playing an important role to make the SSB suitable for the satellite communications: bandwidth and carrier to noise ratio. SSB is using in satellite communication where voice signals are multiplex to make a baseband composite signal. Another form of SSB is using in the mobile satellite communication is known as the ACSSB (Amplitude Companded SSB) because in mobile satellite service efficiency of the bandwidth is desired.

Frequency Modulation:

In satellite communications FM systems are used to use for different applications. In FM, carrier frequency is changed with the signal information [1]. This modulation systems are using where receiving technique is simple and low-cost [4]. An example is Inmarsat Paging system because of that paging system is the need for simple and inexpensive receiver [1]. The common methods of modulation used in the fixed-satellite service are FM for analogue signals [5].

FM has been largely used in satellite communications. It is particularly convenient when a single carrier per transponder is used and where the constant envelope of the FM signals allows the power amplifiers to operate at saturation, thus making maximum use of the available power.[5]

Digital Modulation:

Like analogue modulation , in digital modulation systems carrier parameters like phase, frequency or amplitude are varied with information signals. According to this there are three basic modulation schemes in digital modulation like Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK). There are many variations and combination of these techniques. The combination of ASK and PSK is also known as the QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).

As the advance in technology and limitation of analogue modulation it is now most of the satellite using digital modulation techniques and providing some advantages over analogue modulation like better performance, error detection and correction efficiency, signal to noise ratio etc. So in this paper focus are mainly given to the various types of digital modulation systems.

We can divide digital modulation systems into two large categories [1];

Constant Envelop Modulation and

Non- Constant Envelop Modulation and

The constant envelop class is generally considered as the most suitable for the satellite communications because it minimizes the effect of non-linear amplification in the high power amplifier like TWTA (Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier) or KTA (Klystron Tube Amplifier). In this case the generic FSK is not suitable for satellite communication because it has very low bandwidth efficiency as compared to PSK systems [5].In this section of the report a brief description of different types of digital modulation systems using in satellite communication is given.

PSK BPSK QPSK:

In PSK system, envelop is constant but the phase changes discontinuously from symbol to symbol. There are two types of classic PSK schemes like BPSK (Binary PSK) and QPSK (Quadrature PSK). Generally, PSK modulation systems with M-ary signals can be used and it’s known as MPSK [5]. MPSK is more suitable than MFSK because it provides better Power Nyquest efficiency than MFSK.

In mobile satellite communication, the most commonly used digital modulation system have been BPSK and different forms of QPSK. It is not surprising that higher order modulation are providing the better performance and efficient as well but they are more sensitive to the channel impairments. Recently, higher order PSK, 16-QAM is using for this purpose. [1]

PSK modulation systems easily represented in the I-Q plane where I and Q planes are perpendicular to each other. One point in I-Q plane is providing the information about the signal state [1]. PSK scheme include two basic techniques like BPSK and QPSK. In BPSK one binary code is represented by the two phases 0 and 180 where in QPSK two binary codes is represented by the four phases: 0, 90, 180 and 270. In multi level PSK, the higher the order the more requirement of power to achieve the same amount of performance [5]. PSK is using for satellite communication because PSK signal can be transmitted through the non-linear channel of a satellite and it depends on the proper choice of the modem filters [5].

Other types of modulation systems use in communication satellite are Quadrature systems where the modulated signals are represented in terms of two channels like I and Q. Three schemes of Quadrature modulation are given below.

OQPSK, offset QPSK or OKQPSK (offset keying QPSK), also known as the SQPSK (Staggered QPSK), is a modified variety of QPSK. In the OQPSK, the value of Q and I channel not changing at same instant because value of Q-channel baseband is delayed by the duration of one symbol. By using this property, OQPSK signals provide the reduction of the non-linear distortion when passing through non-linear element. So in this case, a better performance can be expected in the non-linear space satellite links as compared to the QPSK [7]. In OQPSK systems, maximum phase change is limited to 90o. It’s one of the reasons why OQPSK is advantageous for satellite channels and is used in satellite links [1]. MSK (minimum shift keying) is another coherent frequency shift keying modulation systems with modulation index 0.5. It also shows the non-linear property through a non-linear satellite channel and the signal has constant envelop.[5] MSK is spectrally more efficient than the QPSK and OQPSK because its spectrum has wider main lobe than QPSK and OQPSK [9].

QAM:

As there is a very inadequate bandwidth available for each of satellite channels, it is necessary to employee spectrally efficient modulation technique. For wideband satellite communication systems, modified signal constellation QAM is used. [8] Its constant envelops combats with non linearity of the satellite channel; M-ary PSK is typically used in satellite communications systems. But when higher spectral efficiency is expected it cost more power than the other schemes.

FSK:

As described above, in Frequency Shift Keying systems, frequency is shifting in accordance with the message state change [1]. Binary FSK is the easiest type of the FSK allowed only two frequency states and this system capacity can increase by M level of frequency shifting then it is known as the M-ary FSK. In M-ary FSK N numbers of bits are combined to form a symbol. [1]

M-FSK is one of the modulation techniques which efficiency can be increased by increasing the frequencies (M) at additional complication and lesser bandwidth efficiency. In low-data rate and low power applications such as Global paging via satellite communications where M-FSK is using [10]. M-FSK can be used for in land mobile satellite communications where the numbers of user are stationary. It is valid for low data rate application like paging via satellites [10].

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) Modulation

OFDM is a mature digital multi-carrier modulation technique has been used in physical layer of broadband wireless air interface standard like IEEE 802.11/Wi-Fi and 802.16/WiMax as well as digital video broadcast-Terrestrial DVB-T [11]. Simultaneously, OFDM modulation is attracting more attention for satellite communications and now it is using for DVB-TH. OFDM modulation systems also use in Military satellite communication.

Coded Orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing Modulation (C-OFDM)

A COFDM modulation system is resistance to the frequency selective fading. This type of fading is seen in the wideband mobile communications. This system is useful for the digital audio and video broadcasting over a long distance. In future, C-OFDM systems would be one of the candidates for direct sound broadcast satellite systems [1].

Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM)

Modulation systems and Error correction coding are combined in Trellis coded modulation systems. To transmit information over the power-limited and band-limited channel, the modulation and the channel coding must be optimized jointly [12].

TCM with Octal Phase Modulation or 8-PSK

8-PSK is a fixed envelops modulation system with greater efficiency in bandwidth. The first TCM application to satellite transmission occurred with the 8-PSK trellis codes. Using a 72 M Hz transponder bandwidth, transmission at up to 155.52 Mbits/s have been realized [5]. TCM with 8-PSK provides high bit rate which is essential in future for the high bit rate application like images, TV and HDTV services over the satellite transmission [5]. There are various forms of TCM like PTCM (pragmatic) and PPTCM (Punctured PTCM).

The PTCM codes are interesting for satellite transmissions. As an example, a new coding systems using the PTCM 2/3-8PSK code concatenated with Reed -Solomon code in the INTELSAT IDR service and is expected to increase the capacity up to 25% base on the standard A earth station and INTELSAT VII space segment conditions [5]. As the demand is increasing for higher bandwidth efficiency, the QAM trellis codes could find the potential applications in HDTV satellite transmissions in the future. But the main limitation of trellis codes applying in the QAM using in the satellite communications is their non-constant amplitude and more distortion occur when pass through the NLA (Non-linear amplifier) [13]. A precise amplitude control must be used in the receiver end [5].

Trellis coded 16-Phase Shift Keying (PSK) and 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) modulation systems are used for satellite communications. But the fact is that when the modulation level increases, the constant envelop M-ary PSK modulation systems are inferior to the QAM systems. On the other hand, QAM suffers more distortion in the non-linear satellite communications channels [14]. QAM is suitable for geostationary orbit satellite channel with only Gaussian impairments because of being amplitude and phase modulated signal, QAM is more sensitive to the effects of interference and fading than MPSK [15].

Single Channel Per Carrier Frequency Modulation with syllabic Companding (SCPC FM)

The main advantage of using SCPC FM modulation with syllabic Companding in satellite communication is to increase the limited capacity and this capacity increment is fully depends on the syllabic companding. The compadors in the transmission side take a wide volume of speech signals and reduce by the compressor with small amount of deviations. As a consequence of that in the same bandwidth it would be possible to employee more channels for transmission. And at the receiver end , the expender returns the original voice signals and during the speech pauses suppress the noise link[16]. This bandwidth efficiency can also be applied to the domestic satellite systems where the use of a small earth station and a large number of routes operating with few channels are important [16]. In future for the larger satellite (IntelSat IVA or V), the inefficient use of bandwidth of satellite channel by small carriers, especially in the transponder one of the factors which limits the total achievable capacity of bandwidth. In this case, the use of a SCPC Companded FM would significantly increase the total capacity of the satellite bandwidth without increasing the total segment cost of the earth stations like other modulation systems [16]. From research it can be shown that the use of SCPC FM with compandors will significantly improve the economic scenario associated with the small earth stations.

Wavelet Packet Modulation (WPM):

WPM is a multicarrier modulation system like OFDM using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). DWT is a transformation technique which is a presentation of the composite signal in time and frequency domain. So in WPM, packets structure is divided into time and frequency domain. So when any interference is realize, in TDMA or FDMA system all packets are degraded but in case of WPM, packets are keep away from the interference with the help of providing the appropriate packet structure [17]. Both WPM and OFDM are multicarrier modulation system but the difference is OFDM uses FFT to combine the transmission where WPM use DWT and Bit Error Rate of Wavelet Packet Modulation is much better than the OFDM. Similarity between these modulation systems is High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). For getting better performance of OFDM, single carrier OFDM (SC-OFDM) is proposed where decreasing PARP was the main goal. It is seen that the PARP is also high in WPM so SC-OFDM can be used to improve efficiency of the WPM. SC-WPM also can be used by exploiting the principal of SC-OFDM [17]. Some experiment shows that the Wavelet Packet Modulation is the effective modulation systems for satellite communications and with lower PARP, SC- Wavelet Packet Modulation (WPM) would enable the broadband satellite communications [17]. PARP performance of SC-WPM is superior to WPM and OFDM. The Bit Error Rate performance of the WPM is better than OFDM.

Multi-Level Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (MGFSK)

For specific reasons, MGFSK modulation systems uses in the satellite communications. It also exploiting the technique of narrow band FM which has constant envelop throughout the signal. MGFSK is suitable for satellite communications where the transponders are in saturations and it is also useful for the transmitter where output amplifier is also saturated [18]. As compared to the 8PSK bandwidth efficiency (3 bit/s/Hz), MGFSK providing bandwidth efficiency is 6 bit/s/Hz [18]. BW efficiency of MGFSK is very similar to the 64 QAM but 64 QAM is not feasible to use in satellite communication because it requires highly linear and well-equalised satellite channels [18]. The key applications of MGFSK are in those satellites which dedicated for ISP traffic, news gathering satellites and some specific military applications.

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

Pulse code modulation system is another technique which is employed in the satellite communications. Here in PCM the main aim is to coding the analogue signal for digital representation and then transmitter by using digital techniques. In PCM, analogue signals are sampled in a periodic manner of time in a rate of Nyquest Sampling rate (twice the highest of baseband frequency) and then quantized in agreed manner. To keep the error in certain level, quantization step should keep as low as possible. [5] Different types of pulse code modulation are seen like DPCM and ADPCM.

Other Modulation Systems use in Satellite Communications

Delta modulation (AM), Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), Pulse Time Modulation (PTM) etc. Spread Spectrum modulation systems are closely related to the PCM [1].

Conclusion: In this report it has been trying to make an overview of the modulation system used in the satellite communication channels. A different type of modulation systems has been described. The selection of modulation systems is depends on the various factors like type of the channels; constraints imposed by the earth stations, hardware limitations, bandwidth limitations, power limitation etc [1]. One fundamental characteristic of the satellite communications channels is the trade-off between the bandwidth and the power to obtain the received signal with certain level of quality. In case of the bandwidth limited channels, spectrally efficient modulation systems are used where penalty is paying for additional carrier power. In the power limited links, bandwidth efficient modulation is using which related to the hardware constraints as well.

Memory Management In Unix Operating System Computer Science Essay

Introduction to UNIX

According to Leon, 2007, UNIX is an operating system (OS) is software that manages hardware and software resources of a computer. UNIX was first developed in the 1960s and has been constant development ever since. UNIX is one of the most widely used operating systems in industry, government and education. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops.

UNIX Memory Management

Memory is an important resource in computer. Memory management is the process of managing the computer memory which consists of primary memory and secondary memory. The goal for memory management is to keep track of which parts of memory are in use and which parts are not in use, to allocate memory to processes when they need it and de-allocate it when they are done. UNIX memory management scheme includes swapping and demand paging.

Memory Partitioning

The simplest form of memory management is splitting up the main memory into multiple logical spaces called partition. Each partition is used for separate program. There are 2 types of memory partitioning:-

Single Partition Allocation

Single partition allocation only separates the main memory into operating system and one user process area. Operating system will not able to have virtual memory using single partition. Using single partition is very ineffective because it only allows one process to run in the memory at one time.

C:UsersEricDesktophssn picsingle partition.jpg

Figure 1.1: Single Partitioning

Multiple Partition Allocation

Most of the operating system nowadays is using multiple partitions because it is more flexible. Multiple partition allocation enabled multiple programs run in the main memory at once. Each partition is used for one process.

There are two different forms of multiple partition allocation, which is fixed partitioning and variable partitioning. Fixed partitioning divides memory up into many fixed partitions which cannot be change. However, variable partitioning is more flexible because the partitions vary dynamically in the later as processes come and go. Variable partitioning (Variable memory) has been used in UNIX.

C:UsersEricDesktophssn picfix variable partition.jpg

Figure 1.2: Fixed Partitioning and Variable Partitioning

UNIX Memory Management Strategies

Overlays

Program will be place into memory during execution. However, a large program will divide into small pieces and loading the pieces as they needed. Overlays will replace the new pieces with the program which is unused. UNIX is using this technique to run a new program by fork the running process which is also known as fork-exec. The overlays technique is illustrated below.

C:UsersEricDesktophssn picoverlay.jpg

Figure 1.3: Overlay Process

Swapping

Swapping consists of bringing in each process in physical memory entirely and running it. When the process is no longer in use, the process will be terminated or is swapped out to disk.

The procedure of swapping is illustrated in figure 1.3 below.

C:UsersEricDesktophssn picswapping.jpg

Figure 1.4: Swapping

Initially only process A is in memory. Then process B is swapped into memory from disk. After that, process A terminates or swapped out to disk. Then process C is swapped into the free space.

External Fragmentation Problem

The size of each process is different, therefore when the processes is been swapped in and out, there will be a multiple holes in the memory because UNIX is using variable partitioning.

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Figure 1.5: External Fragmentation

Solution

There are two techniques to solve this problem, which are memory compaction and fit in the process using algorithms

Compaction

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Figure 1.6: Compaction

Memory compaction moves all the processes upward as far as possible, so that all the free memory is placed in one large block. However, it is not a good idea because it requires a lots of CPU time.

Most processes will grow as they run, and the processes data segments can grow, as in many programming languages, the process will grow. If there is a hole is next to the process, it can be allocated and the process is allowed to grow into the hole. Therefore it is good to allocate some extra memory whenever a process is swapped in or out.

Figure 1.7: Allocating Space for Growing Data (Extracted from http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~hollingd/opsys-fall2006/notes/Chapter4/Chapter4.pdf , 22 April 2011)

Algorithms

There are three different types of algorithm can be used to loads the program wherever the memory space is unused, which is first fit, best fit and worst fit.

Algorithms

Descriptions

First Fit

The memory manager scans along the list and allocates the first space to fit the process. First fit is a fast algorithm because it searches as little as possible.

Best Fit

The memory manager scans the whole list and takes the smallest hole that will fit the process. Best fit is slower than first fit because it must search the whole list every time it is called.

Worst Fit

The memory manager scans the whole list and takes the largest available hole, so that the hole broken will be big enough to be useful.

Virtual Memory

UNIX operating system allows user to fully utilize the physical memory installed in the system as well as part of the hard disk called swap space which have been designated for use by the kernel while the physical memory is insufficient to handle the tasks.

Virtual memory managers will create a virtual address space in secondary memory (hard disk) and it will determine the part of address space to be loaded into physical memory at any given time. The benefit of virtual memory relies on separation of logical and physical memory.

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Figure 1.8: Logical Memory and Physical Memory

Demand Paging

Paging is a memory allocation strategy by transferring a fixed-sized unit of the virtual address space called virtual page whenever the page is needed to execute a program. As the size of frames and pages are the same, any logical page can be placed in any physical frame of memory.

Every processes will be logical divided and allocate in the virtual address space. There is a page table in the virtual memory to allocate and keep tracking of the pages to map into the frames.

C:UsersEricDesktophssn picpaging pic.jpg

Figure 1.9: The relation between virtual addresses and physical memory addresses is given by the page table

UNIX will perform page swapping only when the program needs a certain page. This procedure is called demand paging. The page will be paged into the memory only when it is needed to execute. The whole process will not be paged into the memory, only the pages needed are swapped in.

Demand paging decreases the paging time and physical memory needed because only the needed pages will be paged and the reading time of the unused pages can be avoided.

C:UsersEricDesktophssn picdeand paging.jpg

Figure 1.10: Demand paging

As the example in the figure, only page 6, 7, 8 and 9 is needed in Process A. Therefore, only pages 6, 7, 8 and 9 will be paged into the memory.

Page Fault Problem

A page fault occurs when a program try to use a page that is not in the memory, due to demand paging will only paged the pages into the memory when it is needed. For example in figure 1.9, if the program try to use Page 1 for Process A in memory, the operating system will interrupt occurs as a result of trying access a missing page because Page 1 is not paged in the memory.

Solution for Page Fault

C:UsersEricDesktophssn picPage Fault Handling.jpg

Figure 1.11: Page Fault Handling (Retrieved from Slides Material: Chapter 17 slides 6)

The diagram above illustrated the steps in handling page fault. When page fault occurs during program execution, the kernel will first locate the missing page on the backing store (disk). After located the page, it will find a free memory frame in the physical memory and copy into it. The page table will be reset after that and the instruction will be restart.

Problem- No Free Frames

When all the frames in the memory is been used, the other problem will occurs. This will cause the pages is unable to paged into the memory.

Solution- Page Replacement Algorithms

Solution for no free frames problem is to find a memory frame that is idle and free the frame using a page replacement algorithm. There are three common types of page replacement algorithm such as First in First out (FIFO), Optimal and Least Recently Used (LRU).

UNIX is using least recently used algorithm for page replacement. The least recently used algorithm replaces the page that has not been used for the longest time, on the assumption that the page will not be needed again. The page table will record every time the page being referenced, and when page replacement is needed, every page will be checked to find the oldest recorded time.

Conclusion

Every operating system has different memory management. UNIX also has their exclusive memory management strategies to manage the memory resource optimally. UNIX is using multiple and variable partitioning so that the memory can be stored and use more flexible.

UNIX uses overlays and swapping to replace the unused program. However, it is facing external fragmentation problem and solve by loading the program into memory by using best fit algorithm.

Besides, UNIX also fully utilized the virtual memory (physical memory and swap space) by using demand paging. It allows user to store physical memory in the hard disk because the RAM memory was always insufficient.

Frequently Ask Question (FAQ)

What is a Kernel Memory?

Kernel Memory

UNIX owns a (semi-)private memory space called Kernel memory. Kernel uses RAM to keep itself memory resident to ensure that user programs do not overwrite or corrupt the kernel /user’s data structures. Strong memory protection is implemented in kernel memory management to keep users from corrupting the system area.

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Figure 1.12: Kernel memory

What is fork in UNIX?

Fork is a function used to duplicate a process. The newly created process is called “Child” and the original process called “Parent”.

What is the difference between Swapping and Paging?

Swapping

Paging

– Bringing in each process in physical memory entirely and running it.

– Only the needed pages to execute the program will be swapped in.

– Not using Virtual Memory.

– Use advantage on Virtual Memory.

– Process size must be equal or less than main memory.

– Process size can be greater than main memory.

– Less flexible in handling memory.

– More flexible in handling memory.

Limitations

Appendices

Layered Architecture of the UNIX system(Extracted from Fundamentals of Computer Technology, 2007 by LEON.A. and LEON. M.)

Text Segment

Initialized Part of Data Segment

Uninitialized Part of Data Segment

Heap Storage

Stack Segment

Environment Variables, etc

Low Address

High Address

The UNIX-style Memory layout(Extracted from Operations Systems by Gary Nutt 1997, Chapter 11: Memory Management)

Mediation

Mediation within a Cultural Perspective

Introduction

In order to better understand ourselves, we must understand others. These few words shed a different lens when dealing with differences between citizens in a community. The Alternative Discourse Resolution (ADR) movement was born during the 1960-1970 as a substitute process to serve justice outside of the courts. During this era issues of race, class, gender, social inequality, and human rights began a transformative discourse in society. The movement provided a different lens on the realties occurring in American culture. Many communities felt disempowered and unequal within the United States and insisted justice. The legal court system was stumbled with various court cases, each demanding a place to express their voice to reach impartiality.

Therefore, ADR served as a tool that empowers and serves fairness without legal ties. It developed as a reflective process and began negotiating differences. The ADR was a cost efficient process that allowed disputants to voice their stories in a safe environment with the purpose of reaching an agreement through a mediator. The mediator then serves as a neutral third person in the process and common ground between the disputants. Compared to other forms of conflict resolution, mediation involves the disputants directly in the conflict and in the process of resolution (Frenkel & Stark, 2008). As a result, mediation seeks self-determination, impartiality, and neutrality as the essential foundation in the practice so that inequalities are avoided in the process.

In the article Why inequalities? The authors begin discussing stratification between various ethnic groups and the inequalities that constrain a variety of minorities within a historical context. Issues of intelligence and policies rise to the conclusion on how inequalities are not part of nature or by the economic regimen but of due to the historical injustices such as policy’s put in place that have continued to take part in acts of injustice. (Shapiro 2004). Taking this idea into perspective, diversity will arise in mediation and the importance of fairness and equality are imperative, and mediators, who are not culturally sensitive, may have biases or misunderstanding of the conflict. What are the cultural disparities that can affect the process of mediation? What are the strategies being used to help bridge the gap between cultural differences within a Western mediation process? How does the United States differ in the mediation process to international mediation? The purpose of this paper is to provide a different and fresh awareness on mediation, especially when cultural differences are at the core of the conflict. The researcher first considers that culture is significant in this discussion of mediation and central to understanding the best methods of effective mediation. ADR and mediation will be used interchangeably through out the paper

Culture

Culture can be defined in many different ways. For this reason, culture will be defined and described as: “[the composition of different norms, values, and beliefs for socially appropriate ways to “process” conflict and disputes, including their management or resolution (Avruch and Black 1991). A culture is not defined by one entity but can take many shapes and forms. It goes beyond the ability to identify on the surface of how someone looks, dresses and participates in society; it is the complexity of ideals and values instilled within a persona. “Our culture shapes how we approach conflict and conflict resolution- including our values, norms and conduct. It even influences how we define conflict itself and what we considered acceptable or desirable goals of problem solving” (Chew, 2004 p. 2). As a result, in mediation, misconceptions can be eluded and the mediator or the disputant shifts the power dynamics. The culture of a person can be the based off of beliefs that they bring when in a situation of dispute. By allowing the disputants to have charge in their decision-making, this will empower them and allow the disputant to participate in self-determination, but at the same time it may be dangerous when inequalities of power exist in the process (Davidheiser, 2006). Consequently, this leads to unfairness and misconceptions of mediation as a neutral sphere of negotiation.

Inclusion or Exclusion of Culture in Mediation

Many researchers argue for or against including culture in mediation. Kevin Avruch (2003) discusses how culture has been neglected through out mediation until the early 1980s. He also feels it is crucial for any developing mediation program to incorporate a cultural component in the training process. Mediators must understand that culture can be strongly correlated to the style of negotiation. Avruch (2003) then speaks about Type 1 and Type 2 Errors. He further discusses that each error can be crucial to the conflict resolution process by being to culturally sensitive (Type 1) or not culturally sensitive enough (Type 2). Participating in any of these errors can impact ADR because it may neglect or over emphasize an issue that intentionally was not meant or should have been exposed in mediation.

Frenkel & Stark have emphasized four essential skills needed by mediation to maintain balance such as communication, established climate, diagnosticians and persuasive. These four skills will create an equilibrium that is necessary to begin mediation. Although the mediation environment and mediator are balanced in power, the cultural background of the disputant will proceed as a natural component in the circle to negotiation. “However it can be socially beneficial by generating awareness of structures of power and producing frameworks within which to debate social norms by individual everyday acts of resistance which illustrate the ways in which relatively powerless people accommodate to power whilst simultaneously protecting their identities” (Mulcahy, 2000, p.147 as cited in Li On, 2008,p. 458).

Meanwhile Chew (2004) states every disputant is influenced by their cultural lens and frame their ideas and perceptions around, what is culturally correct. As a result, it can shape the outcome of the ADR process because at the core of the conflict is influenced by the values and morals attached to culture by a person. Russell Korobkin would argue that mediation is a process of negotiating, and those cultural differences do not have anything in common with the negotiation strategies of a person. Therefore, Korobkin believes that it is the separation of the person from the problem that mediation and negotiation truly exists. Furthermore, Avruch would disagree and state culture provides cognitive and emotional frameworks for understanding the actions and motives of the self and others. It has been disputed for years, and the research continues to dwindle in circles. Consequently, culture should not be over or underplayed. Mediators have the responsibility to listen to each individual’s voice and be able to identify if cultural difference will be an issue to reach negotiation. The space for each individual to share his or her narrative discourse allots an empowerment process that transits power to the individual.

The Power of Culture in Mediation

Foucault (1982) states where there is power, there is counter power also occurring. The ideas of power transmitting in mediation are crucial in understanding the facilitative process of a mediator. Therefore, their role is not only to be in charge of the process but to also allow the parties control the outcome. By the mediator controlling the process, transmission of powers can circulate in mediation. As a result, some of the conflicts and counter arguments discussed in mediation are how disadvantaged groups lack control in mediation, due to the power being brought in by the disputant. For example, an underprivileged undocumented person may walk in with less power than a person who is “American”, wealthy, and entering mediation with a lawyer. Cultural differences of respect, conflict, and language can set barriers in the process of negotiation. The power is not equally distributed across the board. Therefore, the mediator is in charge of providing the space for opportunities and to develop a solid communication. Mediators need to be able to diagnose if cultural difference will change the flow of mediation.

The article Family Mediations and Cultural Diversity: Mediating with Latino Families discusses how the mediator can identify differences in aggressiveness, eye contact and face-saving. Cultural difference in mediation reminds me of both power and powerless participating in a transformative space during mediation; what Kris D. Gutierrez, Patricia Baquedano-Lopez and Carlos Tejeda call a constructed “third space.” The third space allows for dialogue to occur to develop knowledge in a dual voice form to construct cultural resources. The space will allow for transformation and discourse to occur. As a consequence, dialogue will begin to open doors for negotiation and develop common ground between the disputants. The process becomes a transformative space for empowerment. Paulo Freire examines the structural inequalities in society and emphasizes on the importance of dialogue between oppressed and oppressor to advance towards a humanizing pedagogy. Once dialogue is exposed differences between both groups are understood. Mediation becomes a humanizing experience to transport dialogue and discuss conflicts between disputants and reach an understanding. Mark DavidHeiser (2006) articulated the importance of mediation and power imbalances that occur by using Gambia, a small country west of Africa, and explains how mediation has allowed for women to be empowered and given a voice to speak.

Mediation was labeled a harmonic process where peace and respect for both parties was the central focus. Harmony ceremonies occur when ideologies between men and women are supported through a peaceful ceremony and issues of justice between male and women are shared and through various prayers rights and the need for justice between the couples are discussed. In many cases the women spoke out in front of their husbands about how they felt about their relationships. Mediation became a space that empowers women to leave their society role and be given a “voice”. The voice that allows their partners to realize the injustice occurring in their communities and at the same time helps renegotiate the power within the environment of mediation. In parallel, the article An Indigenous Imperative supports the argument of power because many indigenous groups like the Australian Aboriginal communities and the Navajo tribe to feel disconnected forms society norms and the structure of mediation. For that sole purpose having knowledge of cultural sensitivity as mediator will help dismantle power imbalances and allow for the voice of the individual to occur. By participating in a “third space” empowerment that occurs for those whose views, values and beliefs go against the Western views of individuality, a collaborative mediation is developed that values inclusion.

Individuality vs. Community

Mediation ideologies vary in different cultures. Providing mediation is not a single process embraced by all. Mediation across the world various and is used for various purposes. Discussing the topic of culture, it is important to mention the sense of community many cultures have and how in American culture, which is an individualistic community may clash in ideologies. Authors Glenn E. Singleton and Curtis Linton discuss in their book titled Courageous Conversations about Race, The differences of individualism vs. collectivism in the U.S. although a myriad of examples were provided, the differences between a self-expression vs. respect for authority. Developed connections to the various cultures exposed who respect a group consensus over individual thinking. This key component of culture gives insight on cultures group orientation strategy and the role it plays n mediation various studies have been conducted to camper U.S Mediation strategies to other countries. In one particular study it was compared to Korean- Harmony ceremony. The Author Diane LeReche (1992) discovered that Korean mediators have a crucial and interconnected role in mediation. In many cases they provide advice and are personally connected to the disputant. They become knowledge consults who can provide guidance and reach harmony. In a very similar process, The Navajo tribe are an example of how their culture, language and traditions have influenced their way of managing conflicts. Their views on life have molded their outlook when dealing conflict resolution. Philmer Bluehouse and James W. Zion explain how the Navajo people have a deeper meaning to mediation by using strong community leaders to refocus the members to their state of reaching harmony within themselves. Through the Peacemaker court, the Navajo enforce two main laws (Bluehouse &Zion, 1993 ). The laws incorporate life skills such as cooperation, friendship and unselfishness for the betterment of the community. Unlike American mediation where a third member is facilitating the communication, the peacemaker is completely involved in the process and gives advice and possible solutions to help resolve the conflict and maintain the relationship between the individuals when possible. The individuals respect the peacemaker and absorb all advice given because it is a cultural norm and the person assigned, as peacemaker is an elder highly appreciated. The individuals respect the peacemaker and absorb all advice given because it is a cultural norm and the person assigned, as peacemaker is an elder highly appreciated. Then it is the cultural lens is applied to what the needs of the community are and its members. In the Navajo clan, maintaining relationships is important and valued. Therefore, in mediation, the process becomes a medicine and is guided through a ceremonial process intended to diagnose the problem.

Mediation is used to resolve conflict resolution and how the process is obtained varies in various cultural communities. Embracing community unity is significant also. In Japan community represents whole no individuality. Everything exerted is for the benefit of the community. Therefore, it is a community responsibility to participate in mediation and avoid the court unless mediation fails. In which then it represents the individuals accepting personal failure. While community unity is important as a way of life, it is also established as a community norm where the court only exists as a process for those community members who failed to participate in mediation. It is a process not embraced as an option or an alternative to legal dispute. Mediation must occur as a community duty to help maintain relations with others (Callister,Wall1997). When member of a disputants participate in community mediation, it enhances the human achievement and needs of belonging in a society without feeling excluded (Schwerin, 1995). In Eastern Europe, community mediation is viewed as a transfer of power from an authoritative structure to a democratic ideology. Community mediation can be a powerful tool if the correct tools are used to execute the process.

Western vs. Community Mediation is vividly viewed across internationally in all mediation. The differences between peacemakers and mediators distinguish the role of respect between members in the community. In Western mediations, a mediator is a facilitative person not representing any party in the process. In contrast, a peacemaker is a most commonly a relative. It builds on the unity of a community, rather then the self most commonly seen in western mediation. The process also establishes the importance of relation in relative to the essence of time. In community mediation, relationships are important for the benefit of maintaining relationships in society. In Western mediation, mediation means money. Therefore, the process is not about the relationships but of tackling the problem. The problem is detached from the person and singled out to discuss the conflict. Although the purpose of mediation is to find a common space, cultural inequalities will continue to stand out as an issue in mediation. American culture establishes the principles for all interracial group interactions (Singleton & Linton, 2006). Hence why culture continues to have “differences” in mediation. Just because other cultures do not have the same individualistic mentality and way of living does not conclude there are problems in mediation. Consequently they become differences in ADR because they do not constitute the norms, and routines of the individual.

Cultural Differences in Mediation Perception

Perceptions Understanding perceptions can expand the range of possible solutions. In the book, Getting to YES, The authors explain the importance of detaching the individual from the problem in order to better grasp the conflict. One of the key components in being able to do is by clarifying the perception of the disputants. Understanding perceptions can expand the range of possible solutions. Without identifying the perceptions, assumptions are made. Those assumptions developed, take part on the negotiation process. Every person carries different assumptions. While some may feel to restore connections others are there to voice justice.

Trust

In this process, trust is important. Without the trust between the mediator and the disputant, reaching negotiation is complicated. In the article Trust and other-Anxiety in Negotiation: Dynamics Across Boundaries of Self and Culture, the authors argue trust is a hidden feature rarely exposed in the negotiation process but is present through tension. High and low layers of trust will expose the communication between the disputants. Communication is the goal of mediation trust can be expanded by allowing the individual to feel comfortable in their environment and begin exposing the trust.” It is dynamic rather than static in quality, if not downright fluid.” (Wu & Laws, 2003,p. 329).

Face expulsion

In Hawaii the majority of its people consist of Asian descent. The “face” concept discussed in this article as a form of self-respect and can affect the process of mediation. In Hawaii, mediation occurs very procedural. The mediators first lay the rules for mediation, and then the mediators consult with each disputant separately twice. Once voices are heard and mediators understand the situations of both disputants mediation occurs as with both disputants. This process has been successful in Hawaii in dealing with cultural differences. According to the authors, face also exists as culturally acquired social phenomena. Facial expression can originate from nature or form nurture. The Asian community has a variety of perspectives of face and how it is define is very similar within cultures. The author then recognizes Ting-Toomey face work theory and the study he conducted with Asian cultures and American culture. “Face displays not only an individuals features and uniqueness but also that person’s sense of social identity, by using metaphorical expressions”(Ogawa 1999 p.5)

Depending on what culture you are from the concept of face develops and carries a natural instinct of ones persona. Face work is important to recognize because it may lead into communication dialogue. The dialogue is intended to create awareness of cultural differences and value mediation in a different way. Face concept plays a role in our communication strategies everyday. Every person quickly get diagnose the face expression of a person. Face concept is important to understand in cultural diverse communities because it allows to lower the tension between disputes and allows the mediator t understand how face is a part of an embedded culture. Mediators who understand the importance of face, will better understand the communication process of members from various cultures

Tools for Cross Cultural Issues

Researchers across the literature have provided various tools to help with creating equity n mediation. Culture is something deeply rooted with an Individual. In order to be able to understand the perspective of the individual reflection must be incorporated. Mediators should follow various strategies to help create a safe environment within mediation. Some of the important tools to use are Reframing. Frenkel and Stark mentions how a simple reframing of a statement by the mediator can reduce disputes and embrace positive information. If the mediator is aware of the strategy can be constructive when racial or negative tension exist between disputants. Furthermore the authors gave example on focusing on the human needs in mediation. What are the needs of the disputant? By doing so, mediation becomes a productive environment. Next Active listening, listening allows the individual to feel empowered and valued in the process. y actively listing, the participants begin to communicate the core of the problem. It is crucial for the mediator to balance and transmit he power of voice to both side in mediation. By neglecting or preferring one over the other can cause conflict in the negotiation process. Also mediators as mention by Frenkel and Starkstate mediators should continuously summarize. By summarizing you are assuring you understand the narrative story of each disputant and it avoids for assumptions to be made. Above all, I feel each individual should be valued for who they are. Everybody is unique and differences should be embraced and not singled out, as a conflict in mediation is a space to help conquer differences and establish common ground to help problem solve through collaboration.

Mediation from the start! Education and Mediation

Timothy Hedeen, author of Dialogue and Democracy, community and Capacity: Lessons for conflict Resolution Education from Montessori, Dewey, and Freire, expresses the importance for cultural mediation to begin at a young age. He uses the work of three huge contributors in education to help establish a dimension for conflict resolution in education. The purpose is to empower the students and to begin participating in their own self-determination process. The process becomes almost a way of living. Taking key models from the leading researchers in education, learning bout conflict becomes a group effort and a learning process. The process also allows for children to begin critically thinking and taking charge of their own voice. The process will establish end result of participants in society as problem solvers. Critically thinking about this process, can leads me to think on the transformative change that can occur in society. By establishing norms at a young age on the importance of solving our own problems, mediation would be conducted at a personal level. At the same time, children will also participate in constant dialogue with reflection and understand the viewpoints of other while in conflict.

In conclusion, society has established inequities amongst various cultural groups. Mediation has expressed through out the research differs across the world. Mediators must learn to use key tools to be able and to conduct a space for any individual to feel comfortable and valued in dialogue. Establishing norms of how to deal with conflict resolution at a young age will help establish a community of critical and problem solving thinkers.

References

Adair, W. L., & Brett, J. M. (2005). The Negotiation Dance: Time, Culture, and Behavioral Sequences in Negotiation. Organization Science, 16(1), 33-51.

Avruch, K. (2000). Culture and Negotiation Pedagogy. Negotiation Journal, 0, 339-346.

Avruch, K. (2003). Type 1 and Type 2 Errors in Culturally Sensitive Conflict Resolution Practice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 20(3), 351-371.

Bluehouse, P., & Zion, J. W. (1993). Hozhooji Naa’aanii: The Navajo Justice and Harmony Ceremony. Mediation Quarterly, 10(4), 327-337.

Brigg, M. (2003). Mediation, Power, and Cultural Difference. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 20(3), 287-306.

Callister, R. R., & Wall Jr., J. A. (1997). Japanese Community and Organizational Mediation. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41(2), 311-327.

Callister, R. R., & Wall Jr., J. A. (2004). Thai and U.S Mediation. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48(4), 573-598.

Chew, P. K. (2004). The Pervasiveness of Culture in Conflict. Journal of Legal Education, 54(1), 1-23.

Cobb, S. (1993). Empowerment and Mediation. Negotiation Journal, 0, 245-259.

Davidheiser, M. (2006). Harmony, Peacemaking and Power: Controlling Process and African Mediation. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 23(3), 281-299.

Fisher, R., Ury, W. L., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In (2 Reprint ed.). Boston: Penguin (Non-Classics).

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (15th ed.). New York: Seabury Press.

Frenkel, D. N., & Stark, J. H. (2008). The Practice of Mediation: A Video-integrated Text (Pap/DVD ed.). Baltimore: Aspen Publishers, Inc..

Gil, S. P. (1999). Mediation and Communication of Information in the Cultural Interface. AI & SOCIETY, 13, 218-234.

Gilhooley, J., & Scheuch, N. (2000). Using Peer Mediation in Classrooms and Schools: Strategies for Teachers, Counselors, and Administrators (1 ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Goldberg, R. M. (2009). How Our Worldviews Shape Our practice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26(4), 405-431.

Grose, P. R. (1995). An Indigenous Imperative: The Rationale for the Recognition of Aboriginal Dispute Resolution Mechanism. Mediation Quarterly, 12(4), 327-338.

Hedeen, T. (2005). Dialogue and Democracy, Community and Capacity: Lessons for Conflict Resolution Education from Montessori, Dewey, and Freire. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 23(2), 185-202.

Irving, H. H., Benjamin, M., & San-Pedro, J. (1999). Family Mediation and Cultural Diversity: Mediating with Latino Families. Mediation Quarterly, 16(4), 325-339.

LeResche, D. (1992). Comparison of the American Mediation Process with a Korean-American Harmony Restoration. Mediation Quarterly, 9(4), 323-339.

Leng, R. J., & Raegan, P. M. (2003). Social and Political Cultural Effects on the Outcomes of Mediaiton in militarized Interstate Disputes. International Studies Quarterly, 47, 431-452.

Li-On, L. (2009). The Politics of Community mediation: A Study of Community Mediation in Israel. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26(4), 453-479.

Linton, C., & Singleton, G. E. (2005). Courageous Conversations About Race: A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Ogawa, N. (1999). The Concept of Face work: Its Functions in the Hawaii Model of Mediation . Mediation Quarterly, 17(1), 5-20.

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Soon, J. J. (1990). Some Guidelines for Mediators of Intercultural Disputes. Negotiation Journal, 0, 383-389.

Umbreit, M. S. (1997). Humanistic Mediation: A Transformative Journey of Peacemaking . Mediation Quarterly, 14(3), 201-213.

Wing, L. (2009). Mediation and Inequality Reconsidered: Bringing the Discussion to the Table. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26(4), 383-404.

Winslade, J. (2006). Mediation with a focus on Discursive Positioning . Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 23(4), 501-514.

Wu, J., & Laws, D. (2003). Trust and Other Anxiety in Negotiaiton Dynamic Across boundaries of Self and Culture. Negotiation Journal, 0, 329-367.

The Disadvantages Of Baby Sitting Children And Young People Essay

Babysitters can range in age, tending to be in their pre-teens/teens, ages 11-19, yet it is not uncommon for students in their 20s to take on babysitting as a part-time job. The type of work for babysitters also varies, from watching a sleeping child, to playing games, preparing meals, teaching the child to read, or even driving (if the age is right), depending on the agreed upon terms and determined by parental permission.

In some countries various organizations produce courses for babysitters, mainly focusing on child safety and first aid appropriate for infants and children. These classes or courses can be provided at local hospitals and sometimes even schools. These classes can equip the babysitter with information to keep both the child, or children, and sitter safe in various health and weather scenarios.

[edit] U.S.

In the United States, the circumstances that babysitters face can change quickly. The American Red Cross is currently the most popular form of certification; its curriculum ranges from sleeping to emergencies to encouraging young entrepreneurship. It has been statistically shown that parents are more relaxed with a certified babysitter. [1]

[edit] Word History

The term “baby sitter” first appeared in 1937; the verb form “baby-sit” is first recorded in 1947.[2] The American Heritage College Dictionary notes “One normally would expect the agent noun babysitter with its -er suffix to come from the verb baby-sit, as diver comes from dive, but in fact babysitter is first recorded in 1937, ten years earlier than the first appearance of baby-sit. Thus the verb was derived from the agent noun rather than the other way around, and represents a good example of back-formation.”[3] The use of the word “sit” to abbreviate to refer to a baby-sitter is recorded from 1800[citation needed]. The term may have originated from the action of the caretaker “sitting on” the baby in one room, while the parents were entertaining or busy in another.

[edit] International variations in definition

In British English the term refers only to caring for a child for a few hours, on an informal basis and usually in the evening when the child is asleep for most of the time.[citation needed] In American English the term can include caring for a child for the whole or most of the day, and on a regular or more formal basis, which would be described as childminding in British English.

In the United States, the term is sometimes used when one parent is at home and the other, who would normally be present, is not.

In India a babysitter or nanny is known as an ayah or aya, a person hired on a longer term contract basis to look after a child regardless of the presence of the parents.

The Disadvantages of Baby-Sitting

Baby-sitting is a way to get some extra money in a short time period, but disadvantages are present, such as hours, behavior of children and irregular schedule. This is not a dependable way to earn income because you are at the mercy of families needing a baby-sitter.

On-Demand Sitting

Baby-sitters are needed sporadically. There is no regular schedule and are often called upon last minute. The jobs can occur once and then never again. It all depends on whether the employer ever needs a baby-sitter again and if he was happy with your work with his children.

Uneducated in Child Care

A person who is in need of a baby-sitter may require the sitter to have certain type of experience and certifications, such as CPR, before hiring a baby-sitter. However, typically, baby-sitters do not have an education in child care or several years of experience. This type of person is usually doing it to make a few extra dollars.

Hours

The hours of a baby-sitting job could be at any time during the day. If a baby-sitter limits the hours of her availability, the amount of work is decreased. Also, a baby-sitter needs to be ready for long night hours. Most baby-sitters are needed to watch children at night while the parents take in a movie, dinner or attend a work event.

Behavior of Children

The children that a baby-sitter tends to may appear have angel-like characteristics in front of his parents, but things may change when a sitter is alone with the child. The children may have foul language, tantrums if they don’t get what they want or display meanness because the parents left them with a sitter.

What are the advantages of babysitters?

One of the advantages of using a babysitter is that your baby or child will be one of a small group, and the babysitter can therefore offer plenty of individual attention.

Some babysitters take care of children from several families, and usually have mixed age groups, which closely mirrors family life. This may help your child learn to feel comfortable around older and younger children. It also makes it easier to care for all the children in a family, from babies to school age children. Often, babysitters look after children from babyhood through to secondary school, giving them a great sense of security and continuity.

Many parents like this family-friendly interaction, and sometimes what starts out as a babysitting arrangement becomes a strong friendship that lasts for years.

Taking your child to a babysitter can be the next best thing to your own home. If you’re lucky enough to find a good babysitter close by, so much the better; your child will feel even more at home.

From a practical viewpoint, babysitters can often be more flexible about pick-up and drop-off times. This extra flexibility may mean that you don’t have to organise back-up care as often and is particularly useful if you work shifts. However, like all childcare arrangements, it is important not to take advantage, otherwise you may find that you have to start your childcare search all over again.

What are the disadvantages?

If your babysitter becomes ill or takes a holiday, you may be stumped for back-up childcare. Make sure you ask your babysitter how she deals with situations like this.

Some parents worry that the babysitter’s children will get more attention than their own, which puts them off the arrangement. Even the best babysitters still have to meet the needs of their own families and the other children that they are caring for. However, all aspects of day-to-day life can offer learning opportunities, and good babysitters will ensure that the children in their care are regularly engaged in new activities and experiences.

Making a decision

In common with most childcare choices, there are pros and cons for you to weigh up. But depending on your own perspective, what one person might see as a disadvantage (such as fitting into the babysitter’s daily routine), might be viewed as an advantage by another (lots of learning opportunities in a family environment). The best decision for you will be based on what feels right in your individual circumstances.

Baby-Sitting Duties & Salary

For a great many people, baby-sitting is the first hired work experience in life. Non-professional baby sitters usually range between the ages of 15 and 22. For young people, baby-sitting is usually great non-family related flexible employment that can continue all the way through college. Baby sitters have two duties: to keep the children safe and to provide them with comfort. The rates, however, vary by location and circumstance.

Safety

The No. 1 and most basic of baby-sitter duties is to make sure that the kids are safe; that no physical harm has occurred to them on your watch. Accidents can happen, but it is the sitter’s responsibility to know where the child is at all times. If there are multiple children, it is also the sitter’s duty to make sure that they do not harm each other. Knowing the dangers in a house, especially for the first time can be difficult. It is important to go over all the safety details with the parents before they leave you. Where are all the doors? Are they locked? Do the drawers and kitchen cabinets lock? Are the electrical outlets properly covered? and so on. The best way to keep a child safe is to keep them in your attention at all times. Young children should be followed and monitored closely, older children can have a little more privacy if they desire. If you must drive make sure you have proper car seats. You must also need to know what to do in the case of emergency; where the first aid is, how to do CPR and where to call for help.

Care

Along with safety, a baby sitter’s duty is to provide the children with their basic needs. Usually you will have to feed them, bath them, change diapers or help them with the toilet. The basic needs of children depend on their age; an infant will require full attention at all times even when sleeping.

Entertainment and Comfort

Aside from what a baby sitter has a to do, there are things a babysitter should do. Many children are uneasy about seeing their parents leave, as such a baby sitter needs to comfort them by reassuring the child that their parents will return soon and in the meantime you are going to have a lot of fun together. Children love it when adults play with them; ask to see their favorite toy, or watch their favorite movie, read them a book, play outside if there is a yard, or if the parents permit it, drive to a park or bakery for the afternoon. Baby sitting is made all the more easy when the children like and enjoy the company of their baby sitter. Really good baby sitters can become almost part of the family in some cases.

Salary Rates

The wages for a baby sitter vary drastically depending on the circumstances. The average baby-sitting rate in the United States is between $8 and $10 per hour. Though the average seems low, it is higher than the minimum wage in many states. There are, however, variables. Some inexperienced sitters may earn as low as $5 per hour, or on the extreme opposite experienced sitters in wealthy neighborhoods can earn between $15 and $18 per hour. Usually babysitters can set their own rate depending on the situation; infants should generally add $1 to $2 more to your standard rate, and each additional child added should add $1 as well. If you provide yourself with your own transportation then consider adding between 50 cents and $1 to your salary.

Babysitting Older Children

Babysitting older children generally takes less work than taking care of toddlers or infants. Whereas babies need constant nurture and attention, older children can tend for themselves in a lot of areas. However, there still remains a fair share of work to be done when babysitting older children. Depending on the circumstance, you may be responsible for tasks like driving them to sports practices, helping them with homework, cooking them meals, and making sure their lights are out at bedtime.

Often your babysitting responsibilities will be based on everything from your age to the specific needs of the children. Before beginning to babysit for older children, be sure to inquire as to exactly what the parents expect your responsibilities to be. It can also be helpful to obtain a babysitting checklist from the parents that will guide you with helpful instructions and reminders.

Balancing Babysitter Responsibilities

Taking care of children is rarely an easy task, and handling your responsibilities as a babysitter can sometimes be difficult. For example, if you are babysitting three or more children, or if one or more has special needs, the job can seem overwhelming. That is why it is important to properly balance your babysitting responsibilities so you do not exhaust yourself completely by the end of the evening. Babysitting is work, but it should also be enjoyable. Here’s what you can do to keep your babysitter duties balanced:

Ask the parents to explain their expectations for your babysitting services and derive a clear picture of your specific responsibilities for each child.

Obtain a babysitting checklist from the parents, which will help you keep track of important information and requirements for each child.

If you feel like too much responsibility is being put on you, speak up and tell the parents in a polite manner. Some parents do not realize what a handful their children can be, let alone all the tasks they want you to perform for them or around the house. Letting them know that you are being overwhelmed will cause them to realize they need to give their children more responsibilities of their own or, in some cases, to hire an additional babysitter to help you out.

How to Use a Babysitting Checklist

Babysitting checklists are given to child care providers by parents to give specific instructions, and contact information in case of emergencies.These checklists are important to obtain and utilize as a babysitter because they will detail how your responsibilities should be carried out.

That way, if an issue arises, you will have the information that you need to deal with it. Some items that should be included include where the parents can be reached, the number of someone to call if you cannot get in contact with the parents, the child’s doctor and insurance information, and a signed emergency treatment release for the child.

With this information, you will be prepared for anything that might happen while you are babysitting. Once you are given a babysitting checklist, be sure to keep it with you in a pocket or purse at all times. Read its contents thoroughly before the parents leave, and scan through it several times during the day or evening so that you ensure all of your responsibilities are done properly.

Managing Babysitter Responsibilities

Managing babysitter responsibilities is one of the most important tasks involved in child care. When you agree to provide babysitting for someone’s children, it is imperative that you understand what your responsibilities are and how you should carry them out. Babysitter responsibilities can vary from job to job. Just as children differ, so will the ways in which they need to be taken care of.

In order to have a solid understanding of the responsibilities a parent will want you to uphold, you should first discuss exactly what will be involved in babysitting for them. If they are not upfront with explaining the specific responsibilities for the job, be sure to inquire about them. Some babysitting jobs will simply necessitate watching and playing with the children. Others will include more extensive responsibilities like driving, cooking, changing diapers, cleaning and doing light housework.

It is also helpful to obtain a babysitter checklist from the parents. This checklist will contain, among other things, information that will direct your specific responsibilities, such as how much TV the children are allowed to watch, how to discipline them, and what they can or cannot eat. These instructions will help you understand how to carry out each of your responsibilities so you are not left guessing on your own. With clearly defined expectations and a babysitter checklist from the parents, you will be on your way to managing babysitter responsibilities like an expert.

Responsibilities for Babysitting Young Children

Babysitting young children brings its own set of unique responsibilities. While older children can tend for themselves in a lot of areas, infants and toddlers require constant nurture and attention. Babies must be fed often and, as a result, their diapers must be changed on a frequent basis.

Infants tend to spit up and toddlers make messes wherever they go, so you can expect to spend a significant amount of time cleaning up after them. Infants will also need to be held and comforted often. Young children require naps at certain times, usually specified by the parents, and it is important to make sure they get the rest they need. Most young children cry a lot and it is important to know how to handle such situations when they arise. In order to be fully prepared for babysitting young children, take a class on the subject and speak with parents who have experience. Also, be sure to ask the parents of babies you are considering taking care of what responsibilities they would expect you to have.

Responsibilities of a Babysitter

Babysitter responsibilities vary widely from job to job depending on the age of the children, their specific needs and the particular requirements set by the parents. For younger children, responsibilities may include diaper changes, feeding, and holding; on the other hand, babysitting older children may involve driving them to soccer practice or helping them with their homework.

While some children are nearly self-sufficient, all will have certain needs. This could include anything from fixing them a snack to helping them with a physical disability. Circumstances that may surround the job, such as the parents going away on business or the children wanting to take a trip to the museum, may require you to take on heavier responsibilities such as staying overnight or driving.

Specific expectations of the parents will also determine what you will have to do as a babysitter. For example, some parents want their children in bed at a certain time. In this case, you need to make sure that they change into pajamas and brush their teeth before that time comes. The best way to determine the responsibilities you will have as a babysitter is ask parents directly.

Nanny Vs. Baby-sitting

In-home child care from a professional nanny or an individual doing simple baby-sitting duties offers a parent greater flexibility and control with schedules, compared with day care. Though it may be more costly than day care, a nanny or baby sitter may be the best way to care for children. Ages of the children, the hours needed for care and additional expectations determine if a parent needs just a baby-sitter or a professional nanny.

Parent Expectations

A baby sitter is usually called when the need arises, or she may have regularly scheduled hours to care for children. Typically, the job of a baby sitter is to ensure the safety and comfort of a child while the parents are away for a few hours. A nanny usually is more involved with children for a major part of the day on a regular basis. The Nanny Network website says the responsibility of a nanny is to “partner with the parents to help raise their charges to be responsible, competent young men and women.”

Experience

A baby sitter may be a responsible teen or a trusted adult living in the neighborhood. Teenagers and adults who are serious about working as baby sitters receive training and certification from the American Red Cross. Professional nannies have experience that’s backed up with written references, whether they’re working independently or for an agency.

Household Duties

Household duties are negotiated with either a baby sitter or nanny for additional pay. In either situation, care of the children is considered a priority over chores. Younger children require greater levels of care than school-age children, so expectations about extra duties like laundry and kitchen cleanup must be reasonable.

Child Education

Both the baby sitter and the nanny can be expected to read and play with children or help school-age children with homework. A nanny will take a greater interest in teaching children and may serve as a tutor. Since the goal of the nanny is to raise children to become responsible adults, she will also educate children in manners, etiquette and how to care for themselves.

Child Discipline

Merriam-Webster offers three definitions for discipline: instruction, self-control and punishment. A nanny is involved in all three areas of discipline for the training of children, which may include corporal punishment at the parent’s discretion. Typically, a baby sitter is less involved in the child’s life and merely informs the parents about the child’s behavior.

Rate of Pay

As of July 2010, the hourly rates for baby sitting average $8 to $12 an hour, but can be as little as $4 or more than $18 an hour, according to the Babysitting-Rates website. A number of factors affect the costs of hiring child care providers. Some of the variables are the number of children, the experience of the provider and expected household duties.

In the Los Angeles area, Mirta’s Domestic Agency reports salaries from $250 to $500 for a five-day week for live-in nannies working up to 60 hours, or live-out positions for up to 40 hours per week. “Nannies usually receive one-week paid vacation after a year, plus six paid holidays,” Mirta’s says.

How to Describe Baby-sitting Responsibilities

Although all baby sitters share basic responsibilities, such as caring for children, providing entertaining activities and attending to the needs of the children, different parents and families may have their own expectations of their baby sitters. Help your baby sitter understand what your expectations are and what her responsibilities will be when watching your children by clearly describing her duties. By clearly defining the baby sitter’s role for the person you hire, you will help both yourself, your children and your baby sitter have the best experience possible.

Instructions

1

Schedule a meet and greet with your baby sitter before her first day caring for your children. After giving the baby sitter time to introduce herself to your children, communicate with her about her role as a baby sitter. Discuss simple things such as rate of pay, bedtime routines and television policies first.

2

Communicate with your baby sitter about tasks that you feel she should complete as a part of her job responsibilities. For example, some parents prefer the baby sitter to make lunches and dinners for the children, while other parents prepare meals before leaving. Let her know whether it’s OK to take your children for outings to the park, an ice cream shop or on bike rides.

3

Develop a baby-sitting checklist that your baby sitter can refer to when you are gone, especially if you have a lot of rules and responsibilities for her to abide by. Remember that getting used to another family’s routine may be overwhelming at first, so developing a checklist for your baby sitter of tasks to accomplish while you’re gone can be a huge help.

4

Remind your children about the rules of the house and ask them to remind your baby sitter if any of the rules are broken. For example, make sure that your children understand that they are not to watch television while the baby sitter is over if that is your rule. Ask them to remind her if she turns on the television out of habit.

How to Find a Babysitter Job

Babysitting is a great first job for teenagers. Babysitting is a flexible job that can fit around any schedule involving school work, extracurricular activities, and weekends. Through babysitting, you can learn patience, how to be a responsible role model, and how to handle money. To find a job, show parents of young children that you have the skills and commitment needed to babysit

Instructions

1

Create a resume. Include any babysitting experience you have had as well as the hours you are available. Ask parents if you can use them as references, and ask them for letters of recommendation that indicate your strengths as a babysitter.

2

Ask for referrals. Call family and friends for referrals of parents who are in need of a babysitter, or use a local referral program. Many states have free babysitter referral programs that screen families and teens to find the best fit. Call your local chamber of commerce to find a referral program in your area.

3

Take a CPR course. The American Red Cross provides training classes for all ages. Ask adults in your class if they need a babysitter or if they have any referrals, and hand out your resume. Parents are more likely to hire you when they know you are certified in CPR.

4

Post fliers around your community in grocery stores, churches, businesses and day care centers. Cut seven to 10 strips on the bottom of your fliers that parents can easy tear off and take with them. On each strip write your name, telephone number, and that you’re a babysitter. Get the manager’s approval before hanging up any fliers in a business.

5

Use the Internet. Advertise your babysitting services on your blogs and community pages to tell your friends and their friends you are looking for a job.

The Strategies Of The Starbucks Corporation Commerce Essay

Starbucks Corporation (Starbucks) is a specialty coffee retailer of hot and cold beverages, coffee-related accessories, complementary food items, teas, and other non-food related products. Starbucks has retail stores in 39 countries and about 146,000 employees. The company operates primarily in the United States (U.S.) with headquarters in Seattle, Washington (Starbucks, 2007).

In the early 1970s, Starbucks was established and the first location was in Seattle’s Pike Place market in 1971. By 1982, Starbucks began supplying coffee to restaurants and coffee shops. Starbucks expanded the business in 1996 to new locations in Japan, Hawaii, and Singapore. Other locations in Taiwan, New Zealand, Thailand, and Malaysia were created in 1998. Starbucks continued to expand globally in 1999, by reaching locations in China, Korea, Kuwait, and Lebanon (Starbucks, 2007).

In a hypothetical situation, Starbucks will acquire a similar business in Mexico. The company will explore locations within Mexico and identify the human resource (HR) challenges that will arise from this expansion. Mexico has unique cultural and regulatory factors that need consideration for the development of Starbucks stores. The organization’s effectiveness to succeed in Mexico is dependent upon solving any issues that result from the growth of Starbucks in a new country.

Starbucks will address recruitment and selection practices to use in the newly acquired company. Another HR decision is determining the appropriate mixture of expatriates and nationals to ensure the acquisition is successful. The skill and abilities of employees, along with training and development practices, are an essential part of the company’s organizational strategy to achieve goals. The HR department of Starbucks has a considerable amount of research and decision making to ensure this acquisition successful.

Mexico’s DemographicMexico is prepared to become the wealthiest country in Latin American between 2008 and 2010 in basic gross domestic product (GDP). The middle class is expanding with employment growth and rising incomes. Mexico has the second highest population in Latin America after Brazil. The population is young, with the average age of 27.5 years in 2006 (Country Insight, 2007). A survey in 2006 found, in the United States, that 30% of new customers are college graduates and the average age of a new Starbucks customer is 42 (Harris, 2006). Retail investors view Mexico as a major attraction because of the large size of the Mexican market (Country Insight, 2007).

Tourism in Mexico plays an important role in the economy. Past presidential elections and hurricanes have steadily declined tourism, but latest indications show that the industry is marketing toward higher-end tourists who are willing to spend more (Country Insight, 2007). The increase in tourism with high-end vacationers will produce a good market for Starbucks.

Human Resource ChallengesUnder the Mexican labor laws, an employee’s daily minimum wage must be at least U.S. $4.50, and includes minimum statutory fringe benefits. Very few Mexican residents receive this low minimum daily wage. The fringe benefits include annual vacation compensation of at least six working days at 125% of the salary, an annual bonus of at least 15 days of salary, a profit sharing program that equals 10% of pre-tax earnings distributed among all employees except high officers, and variable payroll contributions for Social Security and worker’s housing. Social Security contributions can be as high as 22.57% of the payroll salary. Worker’s housing contributions are 5% of the payroll salary (Abogados, 2008).

The basis for severance payments for termination cases is the actual daily salary of the employee. Salary can consist of any type of bonus, commissions, and any other payment that provides additional economic benefit and may include cars or club fees. To calculate the severance compensation, divide the total of all these services in the last calendar year by 365 or the actual period worked in the year. Severance payments are also dependent upon the type of termination (Abogados, 2008).

The three types of termination are termination with fair cause, termination without fair cause, and termination by mutual agreement. Termination without fair cause allows the employee to collect three month’s salary, 20 days of additional salary for each year of employment, a seniority premium equal to 12 days for every year of employment, prorated vacation, annual bonus, and profit sharing for the year of termination. These additional salary requirements continue to accrue after the date of termination until the date of payment. Termination with fair cause permits the employee to many of the same benefits except the three’s months salary and additional 20 days. Employees generally do not consent to a mutual agreement unless termination compensation exists. This payment usually equals less than the termination without fair cause (Abogados, 2008).

Many of the employment laws in Mexico are similar to the United States. The right to form unions, the right to worker’s compensation, the right to safety, the right to be free from forced labor, and the right to be free from discrimination. Mexicans must consist of at least 90% of the employees in a Mexican company. According to the Commission for Labor Cooperation (n.d.), the most important Mexican labor and employment law to realize is “there is a single court in every state that deals with most labor and employment disputes, including collective labor relations, unjustified terminations, disputes about whether an on-the-job injury occurred, and equal pay problems”(p. 1). In Mexico, to discriminate against workers because of sex, their social status, political opinion, disability, ethnicity, national origin, or age, as well as other grounds, is illegal. Overtime pay in Mexico must equal twice the amount of regular wages (Commission for Labor Cooperation, n.d.). In 2007 and 2008, the government is pushing for a new labor market bill to reduce the strictness in employment legislation. Congress must obtain a two-thirds vote to pass this bill and that will be complicated. Shortages of skills remain an issue in Mexico (EIU Viewswire, 2006).

All the regulations in Mexico that differ from those in the United States will present challenges for Starbucks. Hiring a consulting firm or a group of attorneys who are well versed in the Mexican labor and employment laws will aid Starbucks in understanding and interpreting these laws. Going global can be risky if performed improperly and leaves no room for wrong interpretations of the laws and regulations. Understanding the daily wage versus an hourly wage, discrimination policies, along with the termination packages can affect the profits of Starbucks immensely.

Starbucks must evaluate the turnover, labor, and skills availability in the Mexican market. The need for multilingual employees is a necessity to serve the members of the community and the tourists. Scarcity of workers who speak English is a common problem for investors. Mexico, a country much ridiculed from those critical of the United States trade agreement because of its lower labor costs, has observed companies adjust investment decisions. Skilled labor is an issue receiving more attention as companies seek low-cost sourcing programs and workers with a high competency in English (Jackson, Houdard, & Highfield, 2008).

As Starbucks and other companies look to venture into Mexico, the need to understand cultural differences and to study different management practices proves critical. Attention to human resource management is necessary when making strategic choices in the various business avenues available in Mexico. Researchers believe that most companies do not give enough attention to human resource issues. To maximize performance issues such as recruiting, selection, training, compensation, and performance management that require thorough planning and organizing human resources, strategic management is a requirement. Understanding these human resources issues contributes to employee motivation, performance, satisfaction, and empowerment. These factors are critical aspects to an organization’s effectiveness. The common personnel problems that companies encounter are in the areas of loyalty, staffing, decision-making, promotions, compensation, and performance management. Human resource management practices can be the most challenging undertaking for companies, especially when handling cultural changes (Rao, 2001).

Mexicans view joint ventures as an opportunity to increase their economic status and as a career opportunity. As more companies move to Mexico, U.S. practices are becoming more acceptable. The ideas of quality circles, flat organizations, teamwork, pay-for-performance, and a careful selection process are more customary. In Mexico, the cultural view of work and personal life activities intermingles. Because of this attribute, hiring and recruiting mix both personal and work activities (Rao, 2001).

Commonly multiple interviews for managerial level positions are performed in an effort to select a candidate who demonstrates a good fit. Hiring qualified personnel with joint ventures will achieve the company’s objectives. Developing a strategic recruitment practice to generate a qualified labor source to ensure effective employee selection is recommended. Employees with adequate technical, organizational, and interpersonal skills should be selected. Bilingual skills are very important in the selection process. Social referrals are widely used in Mexico in the selection process. According to Rao (2001),Social referrals are used. However, the credentials are looked at only as a courtesy. The credentials are not looked at close enough. I specifically know a couple of social referrals, known to the upper hierarchy, who did not perform up to the company standards. These employees had to be removed, taking care, that no disruptions were caused in the social hierarchy. Social referrals are both good and bad. On the positive side, employees are sometimes the best recruiters (p. 16).

Mexicans have a strong sense of loyalty toward their bosses. The idea of corporate loyalty is not part of the culture. This results in high employee turnover. To increase organizational loyalty, frequently conducting company-oriented training sessions assists in conquering this issue. The training sessions help develop and instill a sense of commitment, loyalty, and understanding of the company. Orientation programs should provide information on the company’s mission, goals, and strategies that provide the employees with opportunities for socialization, which is valued, by the Mexican employees. Rao (2001) states that U.S. companies usually placed low emphasis on such training programs and invest little. Both U.S. and Mexican companies consider training costly, but many joint ventures have found training programs to have considerable benefits. Ford’s executives believe the joint venture with the Hermosillo plant in Mexico concerning the training and development programs are the main reasons for increased commitment, satisfaction, and a reduction in employee turnover. Starting with selection and all the way through retention practices, human resource policies can influence employee satisfaction and motivation and consequently the performance of the organization (Rao, 2001).

Based on the research of human resource practices and polices in Mexico, the recruitment and selection process can be based on social referrals. Using the existing employees acquired through the purchase of a similar company, Starbucks will continue using the social referral policy. At least two expatriates with Spanish speaking abilities will be sent to each Starbuck’s coffee shop to oversee the transition. This will allow coverage for all shifts. All other employees will be nationals. An assessment of skills necessary for the positions will completed to ensure all skills are identified. Goldstein’s model, which consists of the assessment phase, the training and development phase, and the evaluation phase, will be used (Dreher & Dougherty, 2001). The employee skills necessary will be bilingual, with good interpersonal and communication skills. The employees must possess a cheerful attitude. The ability to read and follow directions in making different items on the menu is another necessity. Establishing relationships with local colleges will prove beneficial in hiring personnel with these abilities in conjunction with the social referral method. Training sessions on the procedures will be offered with face-to-face, hands-on sessions.

In auditing the effectiveness of the human resource management, the collection of data will be performed. The data will include hiring statistics such as the acceptance rate, hiring rate, and hiring projections, turnover ratios, exit interviews, employee complaints, and the human resource budgets and expenditures. The level of complaints will consist of, but not limited to, discrimination, harassment, and safety. Another method for auditing will be internal interviews asking what are the perceptions of the company and its goals, the strengths and weaknesses of management, the relations with coworkers, what HR functions work well and what needs improvement, and any other issues the employees cares to discuss. Customer satisfaction cards will be available at all Starbucks locations to obtain results concerning customer service. A legal audit of personnel files and recordkeeping, pay equity, job descriptions, legal postings, Equal Employment Opportunity, Affirmative Action, Worker’s Compensation, and other Mexican legislature is a requirement.

ConclusionAs Starbucks moves into Mexico with the recent acquisition, many human resource management obstacles will be observed. Understanding the difference legislation Mexico has compared to the United States will be a large undertaking. Complying with these laws while being profitable, will determine the market prices for the coffee products. Reducing turnover, hiring the right people, offering a high-level of training and development is a critical factor for Starbucks. Understanding the culture, along with the skills and abilities necessary to provide excellent customer service will determine the success of the company. Audit results will provide the HR department with information to improve the process.

If Starbucks follows the guidelines of Mexico, while instilling U.S. policies, a successful and profitable business should develop. Working in a foreign country can be successful or a failure. Understanding the culture and values of the country, as well as the people, will provide opportunities for Starbucks, the Mexican government and the Mexican people.

ReferencesAbogados, V. (2008). Mexican labor relationships. Retrieved , from http://www.solutionsabroad.comCommission for Labor Cooperation. (n.d.). Foreign Worker’s Guide to Labor and Employment Laws. Retrieved , from http://www.naalc.orgDreher, G. & Dougherty, T.W. (2001). Human Resource Strategy. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-text]. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved , from University of Phoenix, rEsource, MMPBL530-Human Capital Development Web site.

Harris, C. (2006). Starbucks wants to open 40,000 new stores. Seattlepi. Retrieved , from http://seattlepi.nwsource.comJackson, M., Houdard, F., & Highfield, M. (2008). Room to grow: business location, global expansion and resource deficits. Journal of Business Strategy 29(1), p. 34-39. Retrieved , from EIU Newswire database.

Mexico an expanding consumer market. (2007). Retrieved , from Country Insight database.

Mexico: Business environment at a glance. (2006). Country overview. Retrieved from EIU Viewswire database.

Rao, P. (2001). Human resource issues: US-Mexico joint ventures. Retrieved , from http://www.usmcoc.orgStarbucks. (2007). Starbucks Corporation overview. Retrieved , from MarketLine Business Information Center database.

The following report is an overview of Dell Company as it expands its computer business into the Indian market. This paper identifies the challenges facing Dell as it expands into India, including the cultural and regulatory factors involved. In addition this paper will identify the staffing strategies employed by Dell including the recruitment and selection process of its business managers.

This paper will discuss the changes to Dell’s organizational structure as it expands into the Indian market. A competitive analysis is also made, which shows the strategic alternatives and choices for the future

Industry Identifications

During this century it is estimated that Economic and political world power is will shift eastward toward China, Japan and India. These countries are expected to challenge the centuries-old dominance of Europe and America. The worldwide PC industry may be one of the first industries to feel the presence of the new eastern rivalries. The challenges that will no doubt befall other industries will be felt first through the PC market as the expanding Asian PC industry provides an early and substantial threat to the companies of Europe and America.

In both manufacturing and consumption, Asia/Pacific represents the most dynamic region of the worldwide PC industry. The U.S. market remains robust, but growth will slow as saturation approaches. In contrast, the short-term, high-growth regions are Asia/Pacific, Japan, and Latin America. On the manufacturing side, U.S. PC companies depend on Asian suppliers. The Asian foundry has enabled U.S. players to gain and maintain substantial market share on the world market, however tested and confident Asian manufacturers are now gearing up for expansion across the Asia/Pacific and into the United States. Soon U.S. PC suppliers will be competing with aggressive Asian companies in both regions.

Asian players, primarily Japanese and Korean corporations, are not strangers or novices in the U.S. market. Toshiba has been a perennial leader in the laptop market. NEC has enjoyed mixed results. Many others tried to compete in the United States in the late 1980s, predominantly as IBM clone suppliers. That initial foray was short lived and largely unsuccessful, but a second, better-planned, assault is imminent. The new waves of Asian suppliers are not just me-too players scrambling for low-end market share. Instead, manufacturers are looking for strong, early positions in the race to provide the next-generation personal computing devices that are project as such a huge opportunity in the consumer market.

The people at Dell believe that their continued successful will require teamwork and continuous learning on the part of each team member in order to develop and grow. Dell focuses on building a pipeline of talented, diversified individuals in order to meet current and future staffing needs in order to develop Dell’s leaders of tomorrow. They focus on attracting top candidates with the skill sets they require by working on the basis of early recruitment and full utilization of their pipeline program. This strategy has supported their mission statement fully until now. But if Dell plans to take a large amount of the market share in India, it will have to change its mission and strategy according to the needs of these customers.

Dell’s new mission statement: To be the most successful computer company in the world at delivering the best customer experience in the markets we serve and providing special service and support to the markets that are highly differentiated on terms of cultural and demographic basis.

This statement shows that the customers in the region of Asia-Pacific, China and India to be precise have special needs that have to be satisfied. Since it is known from business practice that every market has different characteristic and different customers with their own needs to be satisfied, Dell has to give special attention to the markets of China and India.

Until now Dell has had success with its applied business model, but in order to gain the trust of customers in the Asia-Pacific region it will have to change its model according to these markets special needs and wants in order to gain customer satisfaction and loyalty. For example, the people in this region are not used to surfing on the Internet and making purchases of the products they need. People in Asia-Pacific are used to going to a specific retail chains where they can visually obtain the information, product or service they are looking for. Dell does not offer this option, so in order to gain customers in this region Dell will have to partner with retail chains in this region in order to offer its products to its customers.

Organizational Effectiveness

When a company hires experience they hire habits, both good and bad. With this in mind, any organization looking for good employees should not use experience as the only hiring criterion. Indians are as diverse in their cultural orientations and work habits as they are in the regions in which they are raised (Valanju, 2006). Any organization that is interviewing a prospective employee, should keep in mind that employees that have spent a significant part of their lives in one particular region of India may have certain generic attitudes inherent in those regions that living or being raised for a long period in one specific region will have a significant impact on his or her ethical outlook. Living in one region of India can also have a marked impact on work ethics such as attitude, dedication, initiative and acceptance of responsibility. For these reasons foreign companies will usually consider including an Indian national when conducting an interview thus preventing the employer from missing any subtle cultural nuances.

Probably the most restrictive issues facing companies that are expanding in India are the regulations. Manish Sabharwal of TeamLease, who campaigns for their reform, feels that, for much of Indian industry, “they are a thorn in the flesh, not a dagger in the heart.” The labor laws have become an extra cost–for example, in bribes paid to inspectors–but not a huge barrier to business.

Yet in most conversations with manufacturers, labor laws still loom large. The most notorious is Chapter 5B of the 1947 Industrial Disputes Act, which bars establishments with more than 100 workers from laying off employees without the permission of the state government. This deters employment. Mr. Sabharwal, pointing to a firm that bought machines rather than give permanent employment to 16 tea-boys, says it encourages the substitution of capital for labor.

What is more worrying in India than labor laws, however; is that some parts of the country deter investment because they are so badly governed–and those parts are very big. Some 60% of the increase in India’s population between now and 2050–the “demographic dividend” that is raising such big hopes will come in four northern Indian states with rotten infrastructure and education systems. But what are most troubling are the corrupt governments.

Bad state governments compound another disincentive to investment in manufacturing that is partly the central government’s fault: the indirect tax system. A 2002 study found that India’s cascading import duties, excises, sales taxes and octroi (a tax on goods in transit) accounted for nearly one-half of a price disadvantage of roughly 30% suffered by manufacturers compared with their Chinese counterparts. Since then, most states have introduced a value-added tax at a centrally set rate, and a transition to a national goods-and-services tax has been announced. But the lack of a single market in India causes unnecessary delays and expense for industry.

As any person would expect in a system where so much is at the discretion of government officials, corruption is endemic. As Ms Basu notes: “Entrepreneurs have to spend significant time in dealing with permits, clearances and inspections, and end up paying substantial ‘rents’ to the inspectors.” One foreign manager, monitoring the costs his reputable international building contractor was incurring in constructing a new office block, describes his horror at some of the prices. He called all the contractor’s suppliers and subcontractors to his office, along with some independent competitors, and held an open auction. That saved him $2m in a single day. Collusion between contractor and vendor is so common it is probably not even recognized as corrupt.

This is an aspect of business that nobody likes to discuss, except to say that at least things are getting better. That may be true: Mr. Yog, for example, of Xander, the property fund, thinks that last year’s opening of the property market to foreign investment has already had a salutary effect. In a business especially prone to “black money” transactions, for the purposes of laundering, tax evasion and bribery, foreigners help clean things up–or sometimes find they are unable to compete. The new breed of Indian multinationals too, listed on American or European stock exchanges, have high ethical standards. But contractors seeking their business say that, even in those companies, the kickback culture survives at lower-levels.

Staffing Strategies

Dreher and Dougherty (2001) state that hiring the right people means more than just securing employees who possess the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform a particular job; these people must be able to acquire new knowledge and skills as jobs and environments change. Therefore, it is imperative for companies who wish to stay on top of the competition to develop and maintain high quality recruitment systems. The recruiting system is especially important when the hiring is being done in a foreign country.

Employers expanding overseas sometimes fall to a trap that prevents them from attaining their goals. Employees become so focused on the cultural challenges that they overlook the talent that they already have. For these companies, sometimes the best option is to promote and transfer employees who have already worked their way up the corporate ladder. The problem is that many of these workers have spouses who also work. Therefore, they are unable to simply leave the country and expect their spouses to leave their positions. As a result, the most qualified people to effectively oversee foreign operations are often the last people available for the job. However, with the complexities of growing a business overseas and the costs of training current employees deciding whether to train current employees as ex-patriots or employee local talent is not an easy decision (Solomon, 1999). Therefore, it becomes important to get expert advice to help with staff issues when it comes time to begin the hiring process for expansion overseas.

According to Frauenheim (2006) Dell is planning thousands of new hires in India. According to Park (2004) Dell has already added 700 jobs in 2003 with only 1000 of them coming from the United States. Specifically, where did these employees come from and where will Dell find the latest round of employees? Well, Frauenheim states that for the most part Dell can tap into the streams of students graduating each year from the country’s universities to fill slots. But when it comes time to hire the hundreds of midlevel and senior manager positions these expansion plans will require expert advice. The most successful companies in Asia will be those that are the most successful at hiring the best managers.

While it is not difficult to find managers in India, any organization looking to expand in India and hire the best Indian managers should expect to have to pay for them. According to Frauenheim, mid-level managers can make $30,000 to $40,000 and executives, such as a country general manager, can pull in $200,000 to $250,000. These salaries reflect the fact that average salaries for Indian managers in the technology and business process outsourcing industries rose about 15% last year, and should approach that level of growth this year.

One strategy to dealing with the growth in Indian salaries is to start pulling in managers from other industries such as manufacturing. Hiring Indians who have worked in the United states for a while is thought to be very valuable because they would take with them a learned US business culture. In addition a ranking of 155 countries by ease of doing business in 2006, the World Bank and its affiliate, the International Finance Corporation, list India at 116, two places below Iraq, 56 below Pakistan and 25 below China (“Still in the Way,” 2006). These statistics reflect on India’s diversity, and the differences between the regions within India. And the way they are governed.

In March 2006, Dell said it has created an effort to search globally for managers to fill the 20, 000 person increase in its Indian workforce expected in the next three years. That is nearly a doubling of its current workforce. According to Helmholz Dell’s director of executive talent acquisition “It is too early to tell how difficult it is to find management talent in India” (2006) But he says a critical issue related to managers below the senior level will be how firms hold on to them. “At the lower and mid level, you’ve got higher attrition rates,” Helmholz says. “The company that has a better retention strategy will win.”

Organizational Structure

Smart corporate strategists know that adaptable organizational structures drive winning strategies in turbulent markets. So they map and remap their business units quickly with shifting market opportunities.

According to Eisenhardt & Brown (1999) patching is the strategic process by which corporate executives routinely remap businesses to changing market opportunities. It can take the form of adding, splitting, transferring, exiting, or combining chunks of businesses. Patching is a reorganization strategy that allows managers to focus on the best opportunities and leave the less promising opportunities behind. Using this technique allows managers to constantly adjust their businesses to match changing market opportunities. With the patching strategy managers are likely to focus on high potential businesses while using less corporate resources on low-potential operations. Thus patching is an effective strategy in businesses that are experiencing mergers, expansions and rapid growth in creating economic value for the corporation.

Dell Computer regularly uses patching to focus more closely on target markets. For example, in 1994, Dell split into two segments. The transaction which deals with customers who buy equipment one or two at a time; and the relationship segment that works with customers who buy in quantities of greater than 50 units at a time. Since that time Dell has announced a new split almost quarterly. As a result Dell’s commercial relationship accounts are now segmented into corporate and small business accounts while government accounts are split into three segments; federal, state, and local. Dell’s nonprofit sales are further divided into segments such as education and medical. All this segmentation has resulted in managers that are tightly focused on increasingly specific market opportunities.

Patching is usually executed in small changes; however managers occasionally make medium to large segment changes. At Dell, small moves, such as splitting the government business into state and local divisions, are the normal. But Dell’s managers occasionally make a large move, such as shifting their Asian business from a country focus to a channel focus (Eisenhardt, K, 2006). Large segmentation changes are more challenging than small ones. But managers at patching companies, such as Dell can usually make large moves more effectively than their traditional competitors. The reason is that they are much more flexible due to frequent re-patching while their competitors are, by comparison, out of shape (Eisenhardt). Dell has used their patchin

Operations Management Of Customs Molds Commerce Essay

Custom Molds, Inc., manufactures custom-designed molds for plastic parts and produces custom-made plastic connectors for the electronics industry. Located in Tucson, Arizona, Custom Molds was founded by the father and son team of Tom and Mason Miller in 1975. Tom Miller, a mechanical engineer, had more than 20 years of experience in the connector industry with AMP, Inc., a large multinational producer of electronic connectors. Mason Miller had graduated from the University of Arizona in 1974 with joint degrees in chemistry and chemical engineering.

The company was originally formed to provide manufacturers of electronic connectors with a source of high-quality, custom-designed molds for producing plastic parts. The market consisted mainly of the product design and development divisions of those manufacturers. Custom Molds worked closely with each customer to design and develop molds to be used in the customer’s product development processes. Thus, virtually every mold had to meet exacting standards and was somewhat unique. Orders for multiple molds would arrive when customers moved from the design and pilot-run stage of development to large-scale production of newly designed parts.

As the years went by, Custom Molds’ reputation grew as a designer and fabricator of precision molds. Building on this reputation, the Millers decided to expand into the limited manufacture of plastic parts. Ingredient-mixing facilities and injection-molding equipment were added, and by the mid-1980s Custom Molds developed its reputation to include being a supplier of high-quality plastic parts. Because of limited capacity, the company concentrated its sales efforts on supplying parts that were used in limited quantities for research and development efforts and in pre-production pilot runs.

Figure 3.13 Plant Layout

PRODUCTION PROCESSES

By 1985, operations at Custom Molds involved two distinct processes: one for fabricating molds and one for producing plastic parts. Although different, in many instances these two processes were linked, as when a customer would have Custom Molds both fabricate a mold and produce the necessary parts to support the customer’s R&D efforts. All fabrication and production operations were housed in a single facility. The layout was characteristic of a typical job shop, with like processes and similar equipment grouped in various places in the plant. Figure 3.13 shows a schematic of the plant floor. Multiple pieces of various/ types of high-precision machinery, including milling, turning, cutting, and drilling equipment, were located in the mold-fabrication area.

Fabricating molds is a skill-oriented, craftsman-driven process. When an order is received, a design team, comprising a design engineer and one of 13 master machinists, reviews the design specifications. Working closely with the customer, the team establishes the final specifications for the mold and gives them to the master machinist for fabrication. It is always the same machinist who was assigned to the design team. At the same time, the purchasing department is given a copy of the design specifications, from which it orders the appropriate raw materials and special tooling. The time needed to receive the ordered materials is usually three to four weeks. When the materials are received for a particular mold, the plant master scheduler reviews the workload of the assigned master machinist and schedules the mold for fabrication.

Fabricating a mold takes from two to four weeks, depending on the amount of work the machinist already has scheduled. The fabrication process itself takes only three to five days. Upon completion, the mold is sent to the testing and inspection area, where it is used to produce a small number of parts on one of the injection molding machines. If the parts meet the design specifications established by the design team, the mold is passed on to be cleaned and polished. It is then packed and shipped to the customer. One day is spent inspecting and testing the mold and a second day cleaning, polishing, packing, and shipping it to the customer. If the parts made by the mold do not meet design specifications, the mold is returned to the master machinist for retooling and the process starts over. Currently, Custom Molds has a published lead time of nine weeks for delivery of custom-fabricated molds.

The manufacturing process for plastic parts is somewhat different from that for mold fabrication. An order for parts may be received in conjunction with an order for a mold to be fabricated. ln instances where Custom Molds has previously fabricated the mold and maintains it in inventory, an order may be just for parts. If the mold is already available, the order is reviewed by a design engineer, who verifies the part and raw material specifications. If the design engineer has any questions concerning the specifications, the customer is contacted and any revisions to specifications are mutually worked out and agreed upon.

Upon acceptance of the part and raw material specifications, raw material orders are placed and production is scheduled for the order. Chemicals and compounds that support plastic-parts manufacturing are typically ordered and received within one week. Upon receipt, the com- pounds are first dry-mixed and blended to achieve the correct composition. Then the mixture is wet-mixed to the desired consistency (called slurry) for injection into molding machines. When ready, the slurry is transferred to the injection molding area by an overhead pipeline and deposited in holding tanks adjacent to the injection machines. The entire mixing process takes only one day.

When the slurry is staged and ready, the proper molds are secured from inventory or from the clean and polish operation if new molds were fabricated for the order and the parts are manufactured. Although different parts require different temperature and pressure settings, the time to produce a part is relatively constant. Custom Molds has the capacity to produce 5,000 parts per day in the injection-molding department; historically, however, the lead time for handling orders in this department has averaged one week. Upon completion of molding, the parts are taken to the cut and trim operation, where they are disconnected and leftover flashing is removed. After being inspected, the parts may be taken to assembly or transferred to the packing and shipping area for shipment to the customer. If assembly of the final parts is not required, the parts can be on their way to the customer two days after being molded.

Sometimes the final product requires some assembly. Typically, this entails attaching metal leads to plastic connectors. If assembly is necessary, an additional three days is needed before the order can be shipped. Custom Molds is currently quoting a three-week lead time for parts not requiring fabricated molds.

THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

ln early 1991, Tom and Mason Miller began to realize that the electronics industry they supplied, along with their own business, was changing. Electronics manufacturers had traditionally used vertical integration into component-parts manufacturing to reduce costs and ensure a timely supply of parts. By the late 1980s, this trend had changed. Manufacturers were developing strategic partnerships with parts suppliers to ensure the timely delivery of high-quality, cost-effective parts. This approach allowed funds to be diverted to other uses that could provide a larger return on investment.

The impact on Custom Molds could be seen in sales figures over the past three years. The sales mix was changing. Although the number of orders per year for mold fabrication remained virtually constant, orders for multiple, molds were declining, as shown in the following table:

Number of orders

Order size

Molds 1988

Molds 1989

Molds 1990

1

80

74

72

2

60

70

75

3

40

51

55

4

5

6

5

5

3

5

4

6

4

8

5

7

2

0

1

8

10

6

4

9

11

8

5

10

15

10

5

TOTAL ORDERS

230

238

231

The reverse was true for plastic parts, for which the number of orders per year had declined but for which the order sizes were becoming larger, as illustrated in the following table:

Number of orders

Order size

Parts 1988

Parts 1989

Parts 1990

50

100

93

70

100

70

72

65

150

40

30

35

200

36

34

38

250

25

27

25

500

10

12

14

750

1

3

5

1000

2

2

8

3000

1

4

9

5000

1

3

8

TOTAL ORDERS

286

280

277

During this same period Custom Molds began having delivery problems. Customers were complaining that parts orders were taking four to five weeks instead of the stated three weeks and that the delays were disrupting production schedules. When asked about the situation, the master scheduler said that determining when a particular order could be promised for delivery was very difficult. Bottlenecks were occurring during the production process, but where or when they would occur could not be predicted. They always seemed to be moving from one operation to another.

Tom Miller thought that he had excess labor capacity in the mold-fabrication area. So, to help push through those orders that were behind schedule, he assigned one of the master machinists the job of identifying and expediting those late orders. However, that tactic did not seem to help much. Complaints about late deliveries were still being received. To add to the problems, two orders had been returned recently because of the number of defective parts. The Millers knew that something had to be done. The question was “What?”

Questions

1. What are the major issues facing Tom and Mason Miller?

2. Identify the individual processes on a flow diagram. What are the competitive priorities for these processes and the changing nature of the industry?

3. What alternatives might the Millers pursue? What key factors should they consider as they evaluate these alternatives?

Source: Krajewski & Ritzman, Operations Management, 6th Edition

Summary

Custom Molds was founded by a father and son team in 1987 to provide high quality, custom-designed molds for manufacturers of electronic connectors, but later expanded into the production of plastic parts for the industry. In recent years, the changing environment of the electronics industry had a profound impact on the way Custom Molds conducts its business and manufacturing processes. The changing sales mix, coupled with delivery and quality problems, prompted the company to revise its business strategies to address the following issues:

1) Changing trends in the electronics manufacturing industry that caused changes in customer order needs

2) Unpredictable bottlenecks in the production environment

3) Quality issues resulting in defective parts

4) Delivery times

1. Major Issues

Question 1 – What are the major issues facing Tom and Mason Miller?

1.1 Changing Trends

There were several issues facing the owners of the company. Firstly, the major issue is the electronics industry was changing in that manufacturers were developing strategic partnerships that allowed the delivery of high quality and cost effective parts. Also, the nature of their business had shifted in that the mix of sales had changed with the number of multiple orders declining and the demand for plastic parts increasing (Krajewski & Ritzman, 2007).

In comparing with mold fabrication and plastic part (see appendix), it is clear that plastic parts has a higher potential sales than mold fabrication on a larger order size. This will allow Tom and Mason to think whether it is best to eliminate mold fabrication and focus on more towards plastic parts because of the changing environment.

1.2 Production Process

Issues faced by Custom Molds Inc.:

• The delivery times on parts order were taking four to five weeks instead of the stated three weeks.

• Number of defective products was on the rise.

• Bottlenecks increased in the production process.

• Changing strategies within their clients business needs changed order needs in an unexpected way.

There are two distinct processes taking place in the same facility and each process serves different customer needs. Below is the analysis of each the processes (Mold Fabrication and Parts Manufacturing) along with recommendations for the same.

1. MOLD FABRICATION PROCESS:

Mold fabrication is the core business of Custom Mold Inc., and the recommended process is shown in Exhibit 1. Mold Fabrication requires flexibility and quality; hence concept of Job Shop must be applied to streamline the process. Following are the Recommendations to do the same.

• LAYOUT:

Similar equipment or function must be grouped together and the layout of the equipment must be designed so as to minimize the material handling, cost and work in process inventories. Digital numerically controlled equipment should be used as it gives flexibility to change set-ups on the various machines quickly. This will allow Custom Mold Inc. to compete on quality, speed, customization and new product introduction.

• STANDARDIZATION:

To identify and eliminate bottlenecks, Custom Mold Inc must standardize all processes. This means that every task, every job, every event must be approached the same way each time it occurs. This includes a standard way of engineering, workholding, manufacturing and shipping. With standard processes, it will become easier to identify which areas are profitable and which are not. This will enable Custom Molds Inc to look t areas, which have the most variables and make them less variables.

For example – Fixturing / Workinholding is one of the biggest variables in every shop. In a year that has 8,760 hours, we spend 2,200…

…to provide high quality, custom-designed molds for manufacturers of electronic connectors, but later expanded into the production of plastic parts for the industry. In recent years, the changing environment of the electronics industry had a profound impact on the way Custom Molds conducts its business and manufacturing processes. The changing sales mix, coupled with delivery and quality problems, prompted the company to revise its business strategies to address to following issues:

Custom Molds, Inc. was founded by a father and son team in 1987 to provide high ещ to provide quality, custom-designed molds for manufacturers of electronic connectors, but later expanded into the production of plastic parts for the industry. In recent years, the changing environment of the electronics industry had a profound impact on the way Custom Molds conducts its business and manufacturing processes. The changing sales mix, coupled with delivery and quality problems, prompted the company to revise its business strategies to address to following issues:

1) Changing trends in the electronics manufacturing industry that caused changes in clients’ order needs

2) Unpredictable bottlenecks in the production environment

3) Quality issues resulting in defective parts

4) Delivery times promised to clients were not met

Analysis

1) Process Inefficiencies

Some of the issues presented above resulted from inefficiencies in the two distinct processes taking place in the same production facility at Custom Molds, namely the Molds Fabrication process and the Parts Production process (Exhibit 1a and b). The two processes serve different customer needs. Mold fabrication, a skill oriented and craftsman-driven process, requires flexibility and quality. Parts manufacturing, on the other hand, involves a more standardized process that competes on delivery and low cost. The margin for parts is also much smaller.

In the mold fabrication process, the time needed to receive the ordered materials for each fabrication is usually 3-4 weeks. Only after the materials are received does the plant master scheduler review the workload of the assigned master machinist and schedule the mold for fabrication. The idle time between these two steps in the process significantly affects the lead time for delivery of custom-fabricated molds.

The fabrication of a mold takes two to four weeks, depending on the amount of work the machinist already has scheduled,…

Duties and responsibilities of Event Management

INTRODUCTION

Event manager is a person of vision, energy, and commitment in a position of responsibility and authority. An event manager plays myriad professional roles. Event managers and their teams are often behind-the-scenes running the event. Event managers may also be involved in more than just the planning and execution of the event, but also brand building, marketing and communication strategy. The event manager is experts at the creative, technical and logistical elements that help an event succeed. This includes event design, audio-visual production, scriptwriting, logistics, budgeting, and negotiation and, of course, client service. It is a multi-dimensional profession. So now let us see some of his duties and responsibilities.

An event manager is a, Project director: Set and define goals; schedule and assign tasks, Personnel supervisor: Choose, motivate, and evaluate staffs, Art director: Design theme, decorations and printed materials, Executive: evaluate long term results and make decisions, Accountant: plan budgets and balance the books, Facilities experts: find and use a site to its fullest potential, Public relations practitioners: target audience and develop publicity campaigns.

Salesperson: sell the event to the organization, financial sponsors, and the public, Box office consultants: ticket sales and registration process. Program administrator: develop and schedule programming. Caterer: create nutritious menus and oversee food preparation. Captain: choose and implement food service system.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF AN EVENT MANAGER

They will also attend the event to ensure everything goes to plan. Event managers supply to all types of services relating to the events industry a take on the responsibility of coordinating all the logistics involved in making the event work to the client’s satisfaction. They are follows:

Personality

An event manager should be able to present a calm, friendly, and courteous manner at all times. The five essential characteristics of successful event managers can be listed as:

Detail- oriented

Organized

Full of energy, both physical and emotional

Nurturing

Flexible. Having a good sense of humor is a key apart from the above qualities.

Motivation

The job of event manager requires hard work and a service orientation; it is not a good position for a glory seeker. The person who wants to sit at the head table, give orders, and look important has the wrong idea of an event manager’s functions.

Safety meetings and inspections

During the risk assessment meeting the event manager needs to elicit all possible health or safety hazards associated with the goods, services and personnel to be used to produce the events. Specifically ask all vendors and suppliers to identify potential physical hazards and the safeguards necessary to prevent exposure to illness or injuries. Use this opportunities to communicate a commitment to safety in all aspects of the event.

During preliminary site inspections the event manager should look for any event element or aspect of the event site that might have the potential for injury, scanning sanitary supplies and disposable diapers/ nappies, is sometimes considered a form of hazardous material, may be generated by first aid stations and must be disposed of accordingly.

Particularly for outdoor sites, pest control may be important, perhaps requiring clearing and cleaning out of infested areas, spraying for insects. The event manager should determine if vector borne diseases are possible and work with public health authorities to control the vector.

Sanitation and hygiene

Cleanliness and hygienic conditions are imperative for many reasons, including health and safety from injuries or illness, but also for the comfort and the welfare of the event audience, participants, and personnel. Water is a critical component of health and hygiene. The quality and the quantity of the water must be accessed, particularly for outdoor events and temporary event sites, including the potential for water supply sabotage and the location and logistics of getting emergency water supplies. Free and freely accessible drinking water must be provided at all the events. Potable water must also be provided for cleansing needs and non potable water may be needed for dust abatement.

Sanitary facilities must be in sufficient numbers to accommodate the expected numbers and types of users for the expected duration of the events. They must be positioned appropriately to serve the various event populations.

Occupational safety is also a consideration. The catering operations must guard against such hazards as burns from cooking and serving equipments, cuts from knives or broken glasses, slips and trips on spilled liquids or electrical cords, falls, fire and fumes.

Preparing an event record

The event records mainly include:

Timeline/ schedules

Initial proposal

Contacts

Committees

Correspondence

Budget

Site

Marketing and promotion

Promotional materials

Registration

Theme and program

Audiovisual

On the day of the event

During the event, a manager should greet guest, visit at tables during the meal, discuss the sessions with seminar leaders, and generally see to it that everyone has the best possible time. Ideally, a manager will have delegated well enough to be able to do nothing but transverse the site, checking upon people and activities and chatting with guests to find out how the event is perceived. At outdoor sites and large events, event managers sometimes distribute walkie- talkies or wears beepers.

Keeping the events on track

The following steps are taken by the event managers to keep the events on track:

Select volunteers; form committees

Decide goals and themes

Research audience

Create event names and logo

Choose evaluation methods

Outline budget

Contact potential sponsors

Visit and select sites

Diagram sites

Make signs

Plan publicity campaigns

Contact media

Design registration

Audition and select performers

Schedule rehearsals

Draft menu

Negotiate with caterers

Choose serving style

Shop for supplies

Prepare food

The big day

Clean up and close

Meet for evaluations

Send thankyous

Write and file reports

Selecting an event

The choice of a specific event will rest on three supports:

Purpose ( fund raising, recruitment etc)

Audience (need and characteristics)

Organization (success lies in using the strongest resources)

Special events held by organizations and clubs can center on such elements as:

Food (bake sales, potlucks, award banquets, cooking seminars)

Entertainment (talent shows, concerts, theaters parties, gospel sings)

Merchandise

Athletic endeavors

Education

Games

Potpourris

Choosing a theme

A theme should be developed by the event manager for the event. Hobbies and careers, holidays, seasons, games, activities, history, costumes, ethnic culture, geography, colors, flowers, jewels, literature, and weddings can all form the bases of the special events.

The date itself may suggest a theme.

The site of an event may contribute to theme ideas.

Names and logos should be selected with great care. Use a memorable name that clearly explains and identifies the event.

One of the manager’s tasks is to maintain the atmosphere of the event.

Clever lighting can help spotlight a performer or speaker, encourage intimate conversation, or display artwork to advantage.

Goal settings for special events and Conferences

Raise funds for a specific cause, person, or place

Build spirit among long term members ( heal a breach, solve a political problem, launch a new program)

Facilitate information distribution/ exchange especially for large audience

Recruit new members (specific or group of people)

Celebrate, give awards, recognize volunteer efforts

Attract publicity, reach new audience, heighten public awareness

CONCLUSION

Event management is the application of project management to the creation and development of festivals, events and conferences. Event management involves studying the intricacies of the brand, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually executing the modalities of the proposed event. Post-event analysis and ensuring a return on investment have become significant drivers for the event industry. For event management we should have proper communication skill and hard work for it. And we should be ready for work in out the event, only then we can become an Event Manger.

Establishment Of The European Works Councils

The importance of the subject matter for setting up a European Works Council (EWC hereafter) stems from the necessity to identify, evaluate and manage problems that come from the pragmatic aspect of employment relations. As Hoffmann and M ller (2001) note that the adoption of the EWC Directive in 1994 represented a turning point for EWC practice in which interested bodies saw EWCs as an institution to enhance trade union cooperation on a transnational level. However, less attention had been paid to the possibility of management using EWCs to its own ends (Hoffmann and M ller 2001).

In addition, the threats and opportunities caused by the diverse nature of employment relations and practice both on national and international level has made setting up EWCs important to look into bearing in mind also the legal implications involved as well. Therefore, this topic is important because of the priority given to organisations by the EWC directive on the flexibility to engage in negotiations (EWC Directive 2009/38/EC Article 13) between management and employee representatives on a European level for the benefit of improving employment relations.

Historical/Dynamics Background of EWC

A EWC is a body that represents employees and provides for the information and consultation of employees in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of undertakings as required by the 1994 EWC Directive (94/45/EC, Article 1.2). It is the first authentic European body of interest represented at enterprise level which has a status defined by law that cannot be avoided or dissolved by employers especially in most European countries. Although they are forbidden in law to organise industrial actions, they have legal rights to redress through courts when they consider their right has been violated.

The emergence of the EWC is as a result of the need for organisations to respond to the Europeanization of business evolving from the Single European Market. The establishment of EWCs took place in successions as a result of legal changes made to the directive. Initially, the directive focused on a German influenced hard law type of employee participation administered by civil sanctions but aroused opposition which then initiated the shift to a soft law type of employee participation without a firm sanction (Falkner 1996). Although efforts to introduce EWCs in the 1970s proved unsuccessful due to the joint oppositions made by employer s organisations and the governments of member states, about 46 organisations mainly operated by French, German and Scandinavian countries voluntarily adopted the directives centred on the Vredeling directive between 1983 and 1994. The next event occurred between 1994 and 1996 when 386 companies adopted the Directive 94/45/EC to exploit the loophole that Article 13 created. Later, from 1997 to 2008, the establishment of newer EWCs reduced because of guidelines stated in article 6 of the Directive 94/45/EC which led to strictly employee representatives and trade unions (Ko hler and Begega 2010). Finally, In 2009 a recast Directive 2009/38/EC was made because of a legislative proposal put forward by the European commission to address a number of concerns spotted from observing the practice of the Directive in reality.

Also, the issue of Europeanization led to the changing aspects of EWCs. From, a mixed institution of employee and management representatives headed by an HR executive or member of the board of directors (French model) to only employee representatives as in the Continental European model (Ko hler and Begega 2010.

How EWCs are organised

EWC Directive requires business entities hiring more than 1,000 individuals in member states, of which 150 must be employed in each of two member states, should establish a European Works Council (EWC Directive 1994: Article 2) and this is mandatory for Multi-National Companies (MNC) under the European Union Law. Employees can elect work councillors or trade unions can nominate candidates according to procedures stipulated by the country s legislation.

EWCs in Practice

Telljohann (2005) points out that managers and trade unions have diverse interests, opinions and expectations. Lecher et al (2001), also emphasizes on the diverse nature of operations occurring within EWCs as an attribute to the organisations that manage them as well as the directive which covers them. Therefore, these factors represent, determine the development and differentiate the operationalization of EWCs enabling them obtain their structure from interactions with management, national employee representation, trade unions and also within the works council (Lecher et al 2001). However, the standard of relationship is defined by the degree of information and extent to which information is given coupled with the rate at which information is provided and the level of adequate consultation between EWCs and management.

EWCs and Management

Telljohann (2005) identifies four systematic plans of action taken by management in their dealings with EWCs. First of all, managers use a minimalist approach to conform to directives and avoid legal actions taken by employee representative. Secondly, managers apply a combination of manipulative and control approach in relating with EWCs to achieve their objectives. The downside of this approach is that it causes disunion between EWCs and makes them less important in the process of employment relations. Lastly, managers employ a constructive approach to propose improved or enhanced employee relations by offering to go outside the contents of the directive. The advantage of this type of approach is that both parties benefit in that managers demonstrate effective consulting process that is seen by worker representatives as a favourable time to influence management decisions. It can be argued that the mutual benefits achieved from a constructive approach make it an acceptable strategy for managers to relate with EWCs.

EWCs in practice: Management views and usage

In the process of internalising organisational activities and HRM practices on a transnational level, managers encounter difficulties that vary from restructuring organisations at European level to aligning employees objectives with the strategic objectives of the organisation along with sustaining a responsible autonomy at work at a national level. The extent to which management use EWCs in dealing with these difficulties depend on how they perceive EWCs in practice. Again, management perception differs from one organisation to the other in that some managers misconstrue EWCs as an avenue for sightseeing and are sceptical about increasing their importance (Vitols 2003). However, most managers appreciate the beneficial role EWCs play in communicating information to employees and consulting with managers effectively (ibid). It is beneficial because keeping employees well informed on management decisions enables them to clearly understand, accept and put a high value on management decisions. Managers in turn do not only win trust, acceptance and value for the decisions they make, they also gain respect. As a result, the tendency for managers to seek more strategic ways of enhancing the efficacy of EWC activities in the future is definite. Indeed, it is no surprise that management that fall under this category seem to be increasing in size (Vitols 2003).

Case Study: EWCs in Practice

According to a research carried out by Fulton (2005) on British Airways, it is evident that management adopted a minimalist approach in that although they tried to abide by the contents of the signed agreement, they limited information shared with employee representatives and were reluctant in entering into an open consultation with EWC. Also, based on the notion that management did not respect employee representatives, it is obvious that they also implemented a manipulative and control approach in relating with EWCs. These approaches in turn led to distrust between management and members of the EWC along with employees as a whole. Similarly, another example can be found in an Italian agro-food industry (Telljohann 2005) where management used a manipulative approach to show off itself to the public (corporate identity) and a control approach to limit the activities of the EWC.

EWCs and Trade Unions

In contrast to how management use EWCs, pluralistic unions tend to be more complicated in their dealings with EWCs. Trade unions interrelate with EWCs by appointing their international office or the collective bargaining department as delegates over the task of providing support to the EWCs. This approach helps Trade Unions facilitate the regulation of policies on a European level and enable the collective bargaining department concentrate on issues particular to its sector.

Another approach is the delegation of supporting task to national bodies or territorial bodies. Telljohann (2005) demonstrates that it is beneficial to choose territorial bodies because it strengthens the relationship between EWCs and Trade Unions. However, delegating support tasks using the above approaches can be problematic and because of the tendency for delegates to be partial in representing the unions placed in their care on international level or the inclination to follow EWCs of their own country on national level. Whatever the case may be, it is ironic to see that whilst the rationale behind this approach is to meet the demands of members of the EWC on organisational level as regards European policies, it ends up thwarting information and resources that is of value to the organisation and EWC activity.

Also, even though some unionists take up roles externally, complications occur when Trade Unions participate as full members in EWCs activities. For instance, pluralistic trade unions (e.g. French and Italian) assume that conflict in pursuit of the same entitlement as the other unions is inevitable and tend to replicate this approach within the EWC. As a result, full members of such pluralistic unions are likely to adamantly support this act of conflict thus causing problems when this approach is adopted as a controlling method of participating in activities within the EWC. Again rather than satisfying the objective of this strategy, it weakens the effectiveness of activities within the EWC and creates an atmosphere of confusion thus failing to meet the expectations of parties involved.

Typologies of EWCs

Lecher (2001) demonstrates four typologies of EWCs based on the divergent prospects, strategies and practices of actors, classifying them as symbolic, service, project oriented and participative. Differentiation between these typologies is made based on the analysis of interactions among the different actors such as management, trade unions, employee representatives and its internal capacity. While the symbolic typology ranks the least preferred, the participative typology is mostly admired because of its quality to exchange information and induce management to engage in negotiations. In fact, Lecher (2001) was right when he affirmed the constructive quality of a participative EWC.

Advantages of EWCs

According to Vitols (2003) the effectiveness of EWCs does not depend on whether the organisation is headquartered in a country with strong work councils and worker representation (e.g. Germany or Denmark) or weak tradition of partnership (e.g. France or UK). Although Streeck and Vitols (1995) and Marginson (2000) claimed that the effectiveness of EWC activities depended on the influence of strong work councils and worker representation in the home country, Terry (2003) builds on Vitols argument showing that organisations from weak tradition of partnership are hopeful about the future of stakeholder approach. Therefore it can be argued that so far as countries endeavour to improve the operations of their EWCs and apply lessons learnt from inaccuracies made in the past, the efficacy of their EWCs will continue to depend on their willingness to make things work.

Therefore, the opportunity EWCs create in improving employment relations through the exchange of information and the improvement of communication within companies gives companies a valuable reason to establish their EWC (European Foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions 2008). All the same, Vitols (2003) highlights specific benefits of EWCs on a European level which demonstrate that:

Employees appreciate the policies and vision of the organisation and managers are well furnished with useful information which helps them make better decisions.

Developments at national levels are well understood and specific. Also, communication channels are clear and effective and representatives identify their operations as being international in scope.

It enhances the spirit of teamwork and strengthens social relationships through interacting across borders and builds trust between central management and representatives at national level.

Representatives based in countries with weak tradition of partnership are able to bring into operation the stakeholder approach while top management are conversant with the issues surrounding social responsibility and Human resource management.

To this end, it is evident that the objective of the EWC Directive to improve employment relations succeeded in several areas.

Disadvantages of EWC

The genesis of the hindrances in establishing a EWC stems from the adjustable and vague nature of the directive. To begin with, the loose guidelines of the directive expose it to exploitations from a management representative level and reverse the objective of the directive to curb management-seeking interests. Also, as a result of its nature, it paves way for a bureaucratic setting leaving companies lose focus on their objective and benefits of the directive. Moreover, such a directive sets confusion in the organisation of activities amongst participants (Lucio and Weston (2000).

According to Waddington (2011) the politics of labour representation and the possibility of managers to exploit the guidelines set in the Directive for their own self-interest can hamper establishment of EWCs. Managers defend their resistance underlining the cost of setting up EWCS, the impact on company decision making of EWCs and the transparency that may result from a EWC (ibid). For instance, the confusion on appropriate timing to involve the EWC in decision making with too early and too late dilemmas involved.

In addition, transnational organisations incur huge costs in setting up EWC meetings through administrative costs such as travel and accommodation, feeding, preparation and organisation of meetings, real-time translation services, and remunerations for delegates and managers.

More so, some managers claim that setting up a EWC will prolong the process of decision making (Waddington 2011). On the contrary, Vitols (2003: 2006) indicated that managers in companies that have established EWC do not subscribe to that view. To that end, it could be argued that managers see EWCs as instruments that diminish their powers and so they use the excuse of bureaucracy to manoeuvre their way into resisting the necessity to establish a EWC and fulfil their selfish interest.

Besides, some managers also claim that EWCs will make known the employment conditions of the organisation and pave way to possible matters on collective bargaining (Waddington 2011; Whittall et al. 2008). Again, this is a tactic used by managers to strategically meet their needs at the detriment of employees as regards to improving employment relations. The EWC directive is meant to improve relations based on information and consultation and not to force decisions from actors and so it is not a valid excuse to reject requests made by employees to establish EWC because managers are too myopic to see the benefits it brings.

Furthermore, differences in language, culture, behaviour, traditions, industrial relations and legal systems caused problems the diversity in structure and Human resources of EWCs. What is more is the lack of understanding of business terms, balance sheets, etc. by many delegates and reluctance of some delegates to take responsibility for decisions or points of view.

Problems with EWC

From a trade union perspective, EWCs are vehicles for competition between industrial sites in that union representatives exploit the opportunity for exchanging information selfishly. The information obtained is used strategically by union representatives to strengthen the position of their own site while ignoring the requests or concerns of their branches. Therefore it can be argued that the gap in the directive to provide a legal context to avoid such competition in employment relations gives room for the misuse of its activity hence producing a corrupt inter-industry competition effect. Consequently, this argument does not agree with shifting the blame onto the union representatives as Hanck (2000) reasons in a study of the automobile industry.

On the other hand, management see EWCs as an instrument to align organisational change projects with decision making instead of concentrating on concerns pertaining to employment relations. e.g. as in the automobile industry Hanck 2000. Although one can argue that this is because of the weakness of the directive as pertaining to the inevitable issues of organisational restructuring, Miller and Platzer (2003) point out that the absence of an in-depth and specific directive and EWC agreements does not make it weak rather the practical functioning of EWCs determines its efficiency. Therefore, it can be argued that regardless of how loose the directive is, management representatives should align relations issues with structural changes and seek the cooperation of worker representatives on decisions that will benefit all parties.

HR Challenges

From the above analysis, it is apparent that HR managers are likely to face some challenges. These include but are not limited to;

the establishment of a well-integrated organisational culture

one employee voice

aligning employee objectives and values with that of the organisation

ensuring that employees understand and are regularly updated with the strategies and objectives if the organisation

Making a strategic choice between converging HR policies or diverging them with a focus on national backgrounds and as well as widespread

Stimulating movement across national borders while cultivating the spirit of cooperation.

Also, since dealing with employee relations would require ethical considerations based on corporate responsibility and sustainability, it is the responsibility of HR Mangers to ensure that both the organisation and its employees are well protected.

Recommendation and conclusion:

Majority of the problems linked with setting up EWCs is as a result of lack of training. To this end, in order to reduce language barrier and considering the fact that English is widely used by many countries and an official language, representatives on all sides should seek training to boost their fluency in English. Also, in order to get acquainted with business terms and instruments, delegates should also undergo training this will in turn prepare them to participate effectively and take responsibility for valuable decisions.

Furthermore the problem of distinctions in culture, behaviour, traditions, industrial relations and legal systems can be addressed by encouraging meetings to be held outside the home country at other times. This will help delegates familiarise themselves with the norms and values of other nations. It will also create an avenue to improve employment relations between companies, although this may imply a convergence in HR issues as regards industrial relations. In so far as this improves the situation, management should utilise it as a means to achieve the aim of the directive.

Zanzibar Commission For Tourism Tourism Essay

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Zanzibar Commission for Tourism

Under that Act ZCT is responsible with many functions including licensing (operation) of all the tourist establishment in Zanzibar, Monitoring and supervision of the Zanzibar tourist, Assisting potential investors, etc (ZCT, 1992 )

1.2 Mission

Zanzibar Commission of Tourism (ZCT) on regarding the development tourism in Zanzibar has the mission to be the most interesting, miscellaneous island targeted in the Indian Ocean constituency that will be more interesting in the world.

According to that mission ZCT combines various types of tourism such as: Culture & Tradition, Performing Arts, History & Archaeology, Beaches, Culinary (spices), Medical (herbs) ,etc (ZTPS, n/d)

1.3 Introduction and background of the problem

In order to survive in today’s business environment,in small companies, particulaly Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in tourism industry utilize innovative techniques as a basis of competitive advantage. At the moment globalized world, SMEs have turn out to be more imperative for developed and developing countries since they produced high percentages of overall production, employment and revenue collection to the government.

The most important and the greatest growing sectors of the overall economy, tourism in Zanzibar contains many SMEs that make an effort to be doing well in aggressive and quickly changing business situation. SMEs play a critical role not only in national trade but also in international trade. The previous information from different sources such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) shows SMEs in many countries account for a very substantial proportion on local and export market (Knight, 2001). Porter (1991) argues that in order for any industry to compete within the business environment, it has to adopt competitive advantage strategy, so the owners and stake holders should be able to identify their competitors.

The competitive advantages for any organization are superior skills and resources. Therefore any source of advantage is like a drivers of cost or differentiation advantages. (Porter, 1985). Like any SMEs, in order for tourism SMEs to survive in competitive business environment, SMEs should be more entrepreneur and innovative,it means that should perform well in dynamic locations and not in regulated markets.

SMEs could have low performance and unstable environments due to delay of product innovations, the working operation was not aggressives even throw the enterprenuership could be benefited in various ways but does not provide a sustainable competitive advantages. (Hult and Ketchen, 2001). Above all, the innovation, promotion, lowering of the price, differentiation, creativity, all these cannot be performed well without the adoption of ICT(Kotler and Armstrong ,2008). Indeed, the nature of any industry cannot compete with its competitor to bring the superior value to their customers without the appropriate adoption of ICT. ICT is regarded as the main force of sustainable competitive advantage and a strategic weapon especially in the tourism and hospitality industries (Poon, 1993). Generally, most of the tourism industry should be well equipped with ICT, which include radio, television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the Internet, have been touted as potentially powerful enabling tools for tourism change and reform. These changes and reforms include services such as e-commerce, e-booking, e-reservation and not only that ICT facilitate the information processing system.

In order to survive strong competition and current economic crisis in the region, SMEs involved in hotel industry have to improve the quality of its services. What is the role of tourism SMEs in the process in order to gain customer’s satisfaction through service quality and business improvement? It is generally accepted that ICT is a modern instrumental tool that enables the SMEs entrepreneurs to modify their tourism methods. It is used in order to increase the tourist interest. The extended use of ICTs drove the society into a new knowledge based form where information plays an important role for the SMEs as well as tourist satisfaction.

In Zanzibar there is a significant research gap on small tourism business and failure to identify critical weakness of small and medium sized tourism enterprises. A number of studies on tourism have been conducted, however very little has been studied about tourism SMEs and particularly how these SMEs engaged in adopting ICTs for more productivity and overall total economic growth of the Zanzibar .The need to undertake a thorough tourism analysis in Zanzibar has been realized recently. For example, It is important to have a database on tourism development if, students, policy analysts, planners, decision makers and entrepreneurs to be up to date with drive of tourism industry .As a large number of tourism SME’s are involved in the delivery of tourism products and that they are also potential for future development of tourism is a need to carry out studies that might show how small and medium tourism business develop, function, conduct business and how they contribute to local and national economic development. Zanzibar has many tourist attractions and contributes high percentage of economy of the country and that the tourism sector is dominated by SME’s. However there is a continued absence of studies on small tourism firms, therefore it is important to do research on tourism SMEs.

1.4 Statement of the problem

There are different kinds of ICTs used in tourism activities such as e-reservation, tele- and video-conferencing and e-booking tools. The extent into how these products services are used by the SMEs involved in Zanzibar and their potential to improve the sector has not been explore enough. Challenges facing these SMEs in application of ICT are not known and areas for improvement have not been investigated. Given the mounting global demand on usage of ICTs in tourism, there is therefore a need to look at the impact of ICTs application on SMEs engaged in tourism sector in Zanzibar. This study is learning to address the issued.

1.5 Aim of the research

To examine /explore the role and use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in enhancing the competitiveness advantages of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s) in Zanzibar Tourism operation.

1.6 Research objectives

The main objective of this study is significantly examined how ICT help to create competitive advantage in tourism sector in Zanzibar. Not only that but also to identify constraints facing SMEs using ICT.

Specific objectives:

To examine the awareness and the extent of ICT utilization in Zanzibar tourism SMEs sector

To identify constraints and opportunities of ICT usage in tourism sector in Zanzibar

To find out solution options to overcome the shortcoming of the ICT utilization in tourism SMEs in Zanzibar

1.7 Research questions

For the purpose of meeting the above objectives, the study comes up with the following questions:

How do Zanzibar tourism SMEs aware and utilize the ICT in their business?

How do Zanzibar SMEs perceive profitability and performance of their business in relation to use of ICT in their business?

What measures have been taken to solve the problems of lack of use of ICT?

1.8 Scope of the study

This study was conducted to investigate how usage of ICT and its application in sectors, involved in tourism industry could help the way business is run and hence contribute increased efficiency and effectiveness. Due to the time constraint this study covered the part of Zanzibar Islands which is Stone town and the portion of North East Coast zones which includes Kiwengwa village, Matemwe village and Nungwi village because this area is more active in tourism activities in Zanzibar.

1.9 Significance of the study

This study intends to disclose the influence of the ICT as a competitive advantage strategy that can be applied in SMEs in the tourism industry. The study is expected to be of much value to a number of peoples and organization as follows:-

The results obtained from this study will provide some recommendation to the Governing Authority, which is expected to bring insights into Zanzibar’s SMEs on how ICTs usage can bring competitive advantages against their competitors so as to accelerate economic growth of Zanzibar. It will help the policy makers of the country to appreciate the implications on ICT in SMEs in tourism to increase the quality of services in hospitality industry.

The research will provide sufficient information to be used as a reference on this area of the study and to fulfill the requirement for the Degree of Master of Business Administration in Information Technology Management in Coventry University.

1.10 Limitations of the study

Some data are confidential so it was difficult to get the current data.

Financial constraints, so it could be difficult for a researcher to cover all the Zanzibar regions due to financial constraints.

1.11 Summary of the chapter

This chapter was introduced the introduction of the study, the introduction of Zanzibar Commission for Tourism (ZCT) was done under this chapter where all services offered were summarized and the mission statement of ZCT were also started.

Also in this chapter the researcher discussed something about the aim of the research, research objectives, research question and statement of the problems. Not only that but also the researcher briefly discussed the significance of the study, scope of the study and limitation of the study.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This part provides definition of the important terms and concepts which are used in this study including ICT in tourism sectors, the conceptual frame work of this study, the performance of tourism in SME’s, and the opportunity and challenges of tourism in Zanzibar.

2.2 Definitions of the terms and concepts

2.2.1 Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs)

Morrison (1996) argues that it is difficult to define the term SMEs because there are no universal criteria that can be used to determine the size of the business, as a result, Olomi (2009) noted that although the SMEs all over the world contribute a major role in social development, its definition varies from one country to another and even from one institution to another in the same country. An enterprise may be perceived as small in terms of physical facilities, production/service capacity, market share, and number of employee. Olomi (2009) cited that ,the United States Agency for International Development-USAID (1993) ,suggested that SMEs can be defined by considering combination of both qualitative and quantitative criteria and should include one among the aspects such as number of employee, capital investment, share capital, number of share holders, number of stakeholders, total asset, turnover, market share, geographical market coverage, organizational complexity, composition of management and degree of formalization.

In Tanzania, the SMEs Development Policy (2002) classifies SMEs under the consideration of employment size and capital investment of the organization. A micro-enterprise is one with fewer than five employees, a small enterprise with 5-49 employees, a medium enterprise with 50-99 employees and a large enterprise with more than 100 employees. In contrast with the Capital investments the definition was based at the range from less than Tshs 5 million to over Tshs 800 million. For the purpose of this research, the Tanzania SMEs Development Policy of (2002) definition will be adopted because it is based on the local environment of Tanzania, where SMEs are characterized by family ownership and local area of operation, which is not the case to other countries. This illustrated in the table below:-

Table: 1 Category of SMEs in Tanzania

Category

Employees

Capital investment in machinery Tshs

Micro enterprise

1-4

Up to 5mil

Small enterprise

5-49

Above 5mil to 200mil

Medium enterprise

50-99

Above 200 to 800mil

Large enterprise

100+

Above 800mil

Source: SMEs development policy (2002)

Accordind to Zanzibar Youth Employment Action Plan.(2007), Zanzibar has a large informal sector operation where more than 80 percent of the workforce is believed to be engaged in. Majority of the establishments in the informal sector are micro, own account or employing less than 5 people. This situation is linked to low skills base as a result of limited opportunities for skills training, working capital and inadequate support for off-farm activities in rural areas. From a gender perspective,women have low participation rates and fewer skills than men. Women account for only 19 percent of total employees compared to 81 percent for men in this sector. This sector is dominated by private individuals through 1,541 registered businesses in 2002. Out of this number, only 6% employs more than 10 people while 79% of the industry employs less than 20 people and only 3% of registered industry employs more than 100 people (SME Policy, 2006). The potential is still there for more employment opportunities especially to out of school youths and those from different vocational training centers. The Zanzibar SME policy (2006) is aiming at developing and creating conducive environment through participation of public and private sector for the purpose of increasing employment provision, income generation and poverty reduction. The policy and the MKUZA aim at increasing job opportunities through SMEs. SMEs are important to the national economic, but they are facing a number of problems, both administrative and financial and thus fail to contribute fully in employment creation.

Apart from the SMEs sector, Zanzibar has a small manufacturing sector. Manufacturing sector in general is at infant stage and has not been fully exploited to its maximum potential to increase its contribution to the economy and welfare of the people. There is a wide potential for investors to come in, invest in big industries and thereby generates employment on the youth. The importance of manufacturing sector in terms of employment creation and development of linkages with the rest of economy is well understood. Employment opportunities that exist in manufacturing take into consideration its linkages with agriculture, tourism, and trade. Other opportunities that could be generated include those from agro-processing, production of souvenirs, transportation, and other new activities that will meet demands of tourism and trade.

2.2.2. Importance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s)

There are many benefits that obtained from SME’s in day to day operation forexample there will be about 1.7 millions business engaging, in micro enterprises operation which is about 3million persons that will be about 20% of Tanzanian labour force (URT,2003)

The SME’s was be the labour intensive by creating the employment opportunity at different level of investment.The estimation will be shown as about 700,000 new entrants in every year as a labour force, not only that about 500,000 of it are school leavers with few skills, while the employment trend in public sector will show about 40,000 are the new entrants and about 660,000 remained to be unemployed (URT,2003) as cited in Temba(n/d)

According to that the trend will be shown in Tanzania will be characterised by low rate of capital formation and normally the SME’s will tend to be more effective in the utilisation of employment situation in the country (URT,2003) as cited in Temba(n/d)

The development of SME’s will promote the distribution of economic activities within the country and boster the technology in easierst way,this is because due to lower overheads and fixed costs in their normally operation, therefore the owners of SME’s must be tend to show the greater resilience in the face of recession by holding their business (URT,2003)

2.2.3 Information Communication Technology (ICT)

The literature shows that there is no universally accepted definition of ICT, because the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis.

Blurton (2002) as cited in Badnjevic and Padukova (2006) defines ICT as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information. Kumar (2001) claimed that ICT is the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ICT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information.

2.2.4 The adoption of ICT by SMEs:

Obviously, ICTs are more than computer or internet even though they focuse on business technology.Therefore ICTs include the software and hardware telecommunicaton and information management techniques, also the ICT can be used to creates,receive, retrives and distribute/ transform information in a wide range. (Porter and Millar, 1985, Brady et al,2002)

SME’s in tourism operation are important tools on contribution of the economy in the country in particulaly ICT has more effective use and better position of working performance and rapidly change the new technologies and creates the tourism organization in more competitive.(Hartigan, 2005)

In recent years, SMEs have acquired direct access to digital technologies for individual task development.In previous this opportunity only for large companies to use computing and communication capabilities to coordinate their work. On the other hand, ICT reduced the expenditure on cost consumption and improve the performance in organization due to certain kinds of communications and coordination can occur. (Summut-Bonnii and McGee, 2002).

(Ragaswamy and Lilien, 1997).On the business today their was certain changes that global interdependencies are becoming more critical thus, companies/organization realized they need to take advantage of ICT capabilities for improving their competitiveness and productivity.

2.2.5 ICT and SME competitiveness

The presence of ICT and use it could lead to increase the competitiveness of SME’s due the faster and more conscientious communication channel, it means the use of ICT has increase the competitiveness of SME’s also enables the establishment of litheness associated with different trading partners due to more consistency of channel of communication. In addition the increases of the biggest enterprises it comes through introduced of ICT in many organizations and adapt quicker to changing operational conditions. For that reason the aggressive compensation of SME’s possibly will turn down.

Normally well-built enterprises not relay comfortable information as SME’s; therefore the realistic decision is not costless if needed appropriate information. However SME’s contain the improvement of slighter interior harmonization expenditure as each and every one resolution is completed by a small number of assessment makers. (Raymond 1993, Müller-Falcke 2001)

The economies of extent can be condensed due to lowering the operational expenditure with the presences of ICT, particularly internet monitor the enterprises situation for appropriate information to obtain the exacting information concerning sellers, buyers and clients that was absent of accomplish. In addition delivery of goods, funds transmission and banking system facilities are reliable, this will enables SME’s to be expanded regionally and internationally.

Finally most of the SME’s are located in outside the town areas due to competition of larger enterprises,transportation and communication costs that, ICT might increases the competition for enterprises and becomes more effectivelly and productivity or the enterprises to be close down. (Annual Forum at Misty Hills, Muldersdrift (2001))

2.2.6 ICT as a business tools

The use of Information, Communication and Technology is very important in current business operations. Entrepreneurs need to understand the market situation before doing any business and the preferred types of products at particular time. This knowledge can be sought through ICT system. The use of media is important in advertising and promoting business inside and outside the country. The available public and private media institutions can be utilized to publicize the available potential of products and services undertaken by youth and others.(Zanzibar youth Employment Action Plan, 2007).

ICT is technology’s version of economic growth, to satisfy the needs and wants of the community over time. Organizations are forced to adjust and take advantage of the opportunities provided by ICT in order to stay competitive. Businesses that do not take advantage of the ICT will run the risk of losing customers and their competitive advantage (Sharma, 2002). Some of the functions that technology has impacted are information search, advertising, consumer buying patterns and behaviors (Hanson, 2000). On a global scale, all industries have been affected by the emergence and implementation of technological advances. All above, ICT can be employed to give users quick access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people, communities and cultures. The positive impacts of ICT can be seen in the following aspects:

Economic impacts: ICT, in combination with globalization and the information uprising have reshaped the employees. By raising the momentum of international communication, ICT has enabled corporations to subcontract jobs, both in the industrialized as well as professional sector (Lippis, 2007).

Social impacts: ICT has influenced societies on numerous levels. They have comprehensive the contact of public administration, leading to a centralization of district administration into city centre. They have lead to new forms of employment in innovation and production of ICT and a stipulate for highly accomplished specialists. On the other hand, ICT has enabled professionals in certain industries to be replaced by unqualified human resources, or even completed exclusively redundant.

Lifting productivity: Investing in ICT can have a powerful effect on productivity in almost every industry, driving innovation, cutting costs, and opening up new opportunities. ICT can boost profits, help small firms overcome limitations of size, and enable even small enterprises to establish a global presence. Nevertheless, to take full advantage of the opportunities of ICT, we need to develop the skills of our workforce at every level, from front-line staff to senior management.

In summing up, ICT has the potential to change the tourism SMEs in improving the productivity at a lower cost and to raise the quality of information. It contributes to make the tourism penetration around the globe. In today’s world, people want to find the appropriate tourist destination, booking and buying airline ticket, check in and getting boarding pass when they are sited at their home or working place. All these can be done with the support of ICT.

2.2.7 Tourism

Holloway (2004) defines Tourism as the business of providing for different types of visitors; overnight or longer stay and day visitors and includes accommodation, car parking, entertainment and attractions, food and drinks. According to Beech and Chadwick (2006), the widely accepted modern definition of tourism is that given by the World Tourism organization (WTO) which describes as the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes.

In tourism sector, various travel operators, hotels, restaurants and travel agencies have been active in development of Internet and e-commerce. The Internet allows travellers to access and recommend the tourism information directly as well as , reviews the local tourism information, this was done previously through the physical offices of large travel agencies. Therefore most of Information Communication Technology (ICT) capture the compensation of direct discounted sales of airline tickets and travel packages, due to both online/offline agencies have shifted on selling leisure products involve high operating expenses. Given that Internet and others travel agencies allow the customer to make comparisons in a price of air tickets and other services of the online travellers (OECD, 2004)

2.2.8 The competitive advantage

Porter (1985) views that a competitive advantage is an advantages over competitor gained by offering consumer greater value than competitors offer. His view on competitive advantages is at the heart of a firm’s performance in competitive market. He argued that a firm’s ability to outperform its competitors lay in its ability to translate its competitive strategy into competitive advantages.

Kotler and Armstrong (2008) suggested an advantage that firms has over its competitors, the way of building relationship with targeted customer, understanding their needs better than competitors do and deliver more customers value. That is it is the extent a company can differentiate and position itself as providing superior customer value.

The competitive advantage is a way of giving a company an edge over its rivals and an ability to generate greater value for the firm and its shareholders. The more sustainable the competitive advantage, the more difficult for competitors to neutralize the advantage (Walker et al, 2006)

2.3 Performance of Tourism SME’s

2.3.1 Trade, industry and tourism

Zanzibar Povery Reduction Policy Report (2003) has the broad objective of this sector in order to create a competitive manufacturing and trading sector, which is geared towards for economic diversification in order to ultimately alleviate poverty. The sector is aimed to provide opportunity for further participation of the private sector. The fundamental goal is to equip and facilitate this sector in building its capacity, create better working environment and institute legal and institutional framework for the enhancement and expansion of its activities. The tools to be used are the National Trade policy, Promotion of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Private Sector Involvement and Development. Zanzibar has a strong determination to develop tourism as an economic sector to provide foreign exchange earnings, creating employment opportunities, stimulate local economy and diversify the economy.

On the other side most of the tourist guides and/or RoGZ believes that on development of tourism factors, tourism is a vital socio economic that participate effectively and successfully in order to manage their life and to be more development. This can be implemented through the Zanzibar National Tourism Policy and the Indicative Tourism Master Plan.

Since the inception of the ZIPA in 1991, the investment process has been very positive and progressive. Statistics shows that by the end of 2002, ZIPA had approved about 242 projects with a total proposed investment value of USD 403 million. Tourism sector takes the lion share with 70% of total projects with proposed capital of USD 313.8 million. In 1985, the number of tourists who visited Zanzibar was 19,368; while the number of tourists has reached in the range between 85,000 and 100,000 annually. In 2001 Zanzibar earned approximately US$ 46 million in forex from international tourism, this accounts for approximately 15% of the GDP. This contribution is projected to increase to around $ 116 million and 21% of the GDP by 2012. (Zanzibar Povery Reduction Policy Report, 2003)

2.3.2 Contribution to GDP

Tourism already makes a significant contribution to the economy of Zanzibar. It is provisionally estimated that the sector accounted for about 14% of GDP in 2001, with 12% for Tanzania as a whole. This contribution is projected to increase to around 21% by 2012.(Indicative tourism master plan ,2003)

2.3.3 Foreign exchange earnings

According to the preliminary results of the International Visitor Exit Survey Zanzibar earned some $46 million from the spending of International tourists in 2001. To this must be added an allowance for the spending of tourists traveling to Zanzibar on internal flights (who are not presently covered by the official statistics). This raises total visitor expenditure to $55 million in 2001. Allowing for the imports from foreign countries that are utilized by the tourism sector, net foreign exchange earnings from tourism are estimated at $46 million in 2001. This figure is projected to increase to some $116 million by 2012. Even allowing for leakages on imports, it is clear that tourism is a most important sources of foreign exchange, and helps considerably to offset the trade deficit which widened from $51 million in 1997 to $86 million in 2000, reducing to an estimated $50 million in 2001.( Indicative tourism master plan final report,2003)

2.3.4 Contribution to employment

According to (Indicative tourism master plan final report,2003), there exists no official data on the employment generated by the tourism sector, it is estimated that currently some 5,800 persons are directly employed by the tourism industry in Zanzibar, of whom approximately 4,400 persons (76%) are employed in the hotel/guest houses sub-sector. The remainder is employed in tourist restaurants, tourist shops, ground tour operators, airlines (state-owned and private), the Commission for Tourism and other tourism-related government departments or as tour guides. In addition to those directly employed in the tourism sector, there are many more-perhaps, as many again, who derive part or all of their employment from supplying goods or services to hotels, restaurants, etc, or who otherwise benefit from the spending of persons who are directly or indirectly employed in tourism. Thus, total tourism-generated employment in Zanzibar could presently be in the order of 37,000 jobs or full-time job equivalents. This number should further increase to around 48,000 jobs by 2021, if, as is hoped, the tourism sector returns to a path of sustained growth. Indeed, Zanzibar Vision 2020 envisages that as much as 50% of all jobs in the modern sector could be provided in tourism and the free zones by 2020.

Zanzibar Growth Strategy (2007) has accorded tourism as one among the three lead sectors of the economy. In recent years the economic growth in Zanzibar has been driven by the increasing contribution and growth of the service sector, (including tourism) which represents up to 43 percent of GDP (2006).According to Zanzibar Youth Employment Action Plan(2007),arque the employment in tourism sector they believed to employ 56,000 people most of them in hotel operations of which 60% are Zanzibari youth. They are mostly engaged in building of the hotel and other infrastructure as well as in services such as tour guiding, transportation and hotel services. The potential is still there, and the government hopes more people especially youth with further be employed in this sector.

2.3.5 Contribution to government revenues

The tourism sector makes a substantial contribution to government revenues through the wide range of fees, licenses and taxes levied on the sector. While precise figures are not yet a

Leadership And Change Management At Mcdonalds Commerce Essay

This report is conducted on McDonald’s. In 1st section focus on change and resistances to change, real examples of change process and its implementation, scope of change at McDonald’s and possible resistances and conflicts to change at McDonald’s. The last section provides management role for making effective plan and strategies to implementation of new change in this way minimise the resistance from employees resistances against this change.

Table of Contents

Section

Name of Contents

Page no.

1

McDonald Profile

4

2

Change and Resistance to Change.

6

3

Real example of change process and its implementation.

7

4

Scope of Change at McDonald’s.

8

5

Resistances and Conflicts to change at McDonald’s.

10

6

Recommendations

13

7

Conclusion

16

8

References

17

cDonald’s Profile:

“McDonald’s started his business in 1940 with 1st restaurant opened in San Bernardino, California by Richard. It was the result of the thoughts of two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald’s who introduced a new revolutionary restaurant “Speedee Service System” in 1948 which was established on principles of the modern fast-food restaurant. Speedee completely replaced with Ronald McDonald’s by 1967. 1st time used as trademark on the name McDonald’s on May 4, 1961, with the description “Drive-In Restaurant Services which is still continues until end of June, 2010. The logo trademark on an overlapping, double arched “M” symbol was introduced in Sep 13 1961. The “M” double overlapped arched symbol logo was temporarily disfavoured by September 6, 1962. The modern double arched “M” symbol started in November 18, 1968. “(McDonalds , 25 August , 2010 ,http://www.mcdonalds.co.uk )

“The list of inventions, the Big Mac in 1968, the Egg McMuffin in 1973, the Happy Meal for children in 1979, or Chicken McNuggets in 1983 .At the present time, McDonald’s have more than 31,000 restaurants in 119 different countries of the world of which a lot are franchised”. (www.mcdonals.com.uk)

“McDonald’s vision is to become world’s best and quick service experience restaurant for this purpose McDonald’s delivering outstanding quality, service, cleanliness, and value, so that we make every customer in every restaurant smile. In mission statements includes best employer or our people in each community around the world, excellent operational for delivery to customers and enduring profitable growth by expanding the brand and leveraging strength of McDonald’s through innovation and technology” McDonald Corporation ,2010)

Change and Resistance to Change:

“According to Rev. Sharon Patterson that which people want to changes are babies who have wet diapers. We can be explained that change is an effort that consists of actual physical changes to operations and different exciting incentive is really painful process in the workplace” (Bernerth, 2004)”

Change Process Model

“Though we all know and believe that progress means change, and we all want and need progress, but not even the prospect of attaining profit from change that everyone will ready and willing to hold change. On the other hand, it is widely believed and trust that most would resist change”, (Duck, 1993)” According to Duck (1993) bluntly he pointed out that “change is intensely personal”.” but according to Petersen (2002) reckons that “for many people, the spectre of change produces Factor of Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt”. (Peterson, 2002)”

“Since change is widely accepted all over the world as almost always from top management to down and its brings by the management, those people which are only being managed would also always show resist against change, before imposing change or before forward change its duty of manager to make a such type framework which should be overcome over all resistance before implementation”. (Peterson, 2002)

“Resistance to change can be defined as it’s a perceived behaviour of organization members which are refuse to accept any change within organization”. (Cheng & Petrovic-Lazarevic, 2004).James Hunt says “Resistance isn’t an indication that something is wrong with what you are trying to change. It is an indication that something is happening.” “Ansoff defined Resistance as its only cause of creation unexpected delays, costs and instabilities into the process of strategic change” (Ansoff, 1988). “Resistance is any employee behaviour trying to stop or delay in any change”. (Bemmels and Reshef 1991)

Real example of the change process and its implementation.

British Airways.

“Past in 1981, British Airways hired on board of Directors a new chairperson. When this chairperson joined, he noticed that the company was very unproductive and was wasting a lot of valuable resources in useless activities. To make the organization efficient and increasing the profit ratio he decided to restructure the entire organization. He realized that Change Methodology Management Plan is the best way to serve that purpose”. (Jean Scheid, 2010)

“Systematically, the British airways started reducing workforce. But, before started this, through his change management leadership, the chairman gave the all reasons for the restructuring and privatization of the company in order to prepare them for the future change. He directed his company through a hard time that could have been terrible without effective change management resistance communication just only through his Leadership & Communication” (Jean Scheid, 2010)

Scope of the Change at McDonald’s.

“The scope of this change for McDonald’s is limited to the application of the Integrated marketing Communication (IMC) as part of the marketing strategy of the McDonald’s. In this change, the most important area that had been given attention is the advertising and promotional campaign of the company”.  “Usually, advertisement or promotional activities are concerned as an open sponsorship of offering products, services and any ideas through the use of any mode of communication. In this purpose, there are different kinds of mode of communication or media which are use for advertising and promotional campaign”. “Basically, in this new Integrated marketing Communication (IMC) theme will be major focus on advertising and sales promotion activities”. “Particularly this change will give importance to the Integrated Marketing Campaign (IMC) as part of the marketing strategy of the McDonald’s.” (McDonald Corporation , 2009)

“Basic aims of Integrated Marketing Campaign to take on a new health-conscious rule that would be constant with the latest trend of health awareness and the growing concern in corpulence among children and target market”. “In addition, its aim is to introduce the implementation of a new and separate menu of low fat for children, planned to counter the rising bad publicity being thrown at McDonald’s”. “The company is well known that this new strategy which most concerns with the health of consumer would effectively inform both children and parents regarding the nutritional value of new, “McKids” Meals, and how these meals are different from the traditional McDonald’s meals”. “In addition, the implementation of the new innovation namely Integrated Marketing Communication might be able to provide an effective advertising and public relations campaign that would successfully introduce the new McDonald’s change to the world”. “For implementation of this new change in the organization, the company has been able to create a team that would be responsible for all essential matters related this change.”(McDonald Corporation, 2009)

“The major focus of this change would be on the sale promotion and advertising, not only to mention other marketing mix which would be included and participated to make successful this innovation or change”. “Today McDonald’s different kinds of menu for kids had faced different criticism, mostly in terms of its nutritional contents”. “The Integrated Marketing Communication has been implemented only changing public image towards the McDonald’s”. “We can say Integrated Marketing Communication is a technique for ensuring that a company’s mission and vision is included and promoted in every advertisement or promotion that will be happened” (McDonald Corporation,2009)

“According to Forgeson and Green Basically there are three major categories of change resistances are organizational, group and individual”. “The following are resistance or conflicts faced by McDonald’s during implementation of this change: McDonald’s employees and customers, McDonald’s organizational culture and behaviour”. (Mabin, Forgeson & Green, 2001)

Resistances and Conflicts to change at McDonald’s:

 1st resistances due to reactions of the McDonald’s staff and customers of the company , some employees are in favour of this new change and some are against this new change mean using the Integrated Marketing communication. Managers and some employees only against this change due to fear, they think might be this change instead of resolving problem it will increase the problems of the company.

There are not only employees have negative reaction towards this change but also customers are not showing positive reaction towards this campaign so it lead o another conflict in the shape of not positive attitude of customers towards this new change in this way McDonald’s cant achieve benefit from this change as whole of the company. 

One more resistance against this new change of the company the shortage of qualified personnel in company who assigned the maintaining these tasks to maintaining crew and application of this new marketing change but they are not much professional so this is the conflict in the way of new change.

“In strategic implementation of the change there are lot of barriers and enablers which are attributed as the main factors for the success or failure of the implemented changes. Barriers may include different resources which are not may be available for the innovation process. These include insufficient financial budget, organizational or stakeholder resistance to change and ineffective used of communication media. One more of the conflicts or resistances that may arise in the implementation of change in an organisation are the absence of support in sustaining the success that can be achieved in the change process”. (Cheng & Petrovic-Lazarevic, 2004) According to Carlopio “Innovation is a social process that should be undertaken in a regular phases and not just a decision event so within McDonald’s these forces are the ones attributed which may hinder strategic implementation of the innovation. The company may not be able to implement the Integrated Marketing Communication as part of its marketing strategy lacking of one of these hurdles, or incapability to handle these hurdles effectively, the company may not be able to implement the Integrated Marketing Communication as part of its marketing strategy”.(Carlopio, 1998)

The difference in culture between the different employees of the organization is another inner conflict. Due to difference in cultures in McDonald in different members of the company so in this way they unable to do work in pleasant environment and in good way and also this cultural leads to create difficulties in the way of implementation of new change in organization. “According to Wilkins & Dyer the administration and management of the management of McDonald’s must be identify and understand those subcultures that might provoke a work environment more or less empowering than the larger organizational system at the time of assessing the interaction between culture and empowerment”. (Wilkins & Dyer, 1988).

Recommendation:

In restaurant industry managers play vital role in any change so in this way what McDonald’s managers pay specific attention at the time of implementation and initiating change towards reducing possible resistances and achieve better organization performance.

Manager is the person who initiating and start the change and employees have to accept and adopt it. Through Effective communication, perception of manager’s actions, employee’s attitude and harmonious working situation can be overcome resistances to change and also play important role in attaining better organizational performance.

Implementation of Change in the Restaurant Industry

Effective communication is the most important components in restaurant industry and played a vital role in the success of organizational operations. Effective communication is very important among the managers and employees and among the employees to employees.Good listening skills are the essential for a successful manager of any organization specially in fast growing fast food industry. Before, after and during the change process managers should carefully listen to the employees opinion and should modify the new change according to the opinion of the employee.

For implementation of successful change in organization it is compulsory for manager he should always alert regarding employees reaction towards change. McDonald’s Managers should realize that if employees against that change and don’t want to cooperate with them so in this way customer service delivery will get worse. Conflict may arise amongst colleagues and managers when employees resist change. In this way employees may not perform well which directly effecting reputation of restaurant and might be it will also become cause of resignation of employees. So befre implementation of new change McDonald’s managers listen very carefully arguments of employees and change the situation according the time need and should avoid the create bad environment in which employees proved poor environment for work and end all go for resignation. Not only this but also they should encourage the employees for better service and development of performance of the company as well as the employees..

“So there should be a framework for possible improvement in efficient working system and better customer service within a working environment. This framework indicates and encourage to both parties managers and employees should look for a better technique of getting things done. We should clear one thing improvement always goes along with change. If there is no improvement, it means no change in this way restaurant will most likely become sluggish in particular when unforeseen circumstances or events occur restaurants and that time might be it will very difficult to keep pace with competitors. Managers should also provide a pleasant environment to employee for keeping happy to workers and cheerful staff will contribute to higher level of motivation and high performance. High-spirited employees would be able to creation and maintain harmonious working relationship with workmates. Managers should always maintain and keep a lovely pleasant environment for employees to keep them motivated because stressful environments always negatively impact the restaurant” (A Paton, R. and Maccalman, J. ,2008)

Further more, the success of the new change is still under process and difficult to convert the children attitude towards healthy fast food meals. But at the other hand, there are very strong chance for this success due to strong campaign and promotion activates for prompting the characteristics of the this new change. Furthermore, McDonald’s should assure the message has been reached to every child in 119 countries where McDonalds is serving for this purpose help from every type media is the best strategy. There should be a new theme for new advertisement “I love it even more!” and hopefully this new theme and way of advertisement will inspire the parents and also encourage the children’s towards healthy food. This campaign should be long lasting, strong concerned on healthy characteristics of this new change and should be in friendly way like ‘kiddie-friendly way.

If McDonald’s carefully make plan and use best strategy and good and effective method for implementation of this new change so there are bright chance of the success of this new change and in this way company can achieve very easily mission and objectives of the company. The most concerned of this company to give image of health conscious which is good match with the latest trend of health conscious measures for this world and also for the future world.

Conclusion:

“According to Beverage the management change leaders must be willing to keep their fingers on the pulse of the organization, by monitoring what is working and what is not working and in the change process.  The management must create s safe environment for changes, reassure, support, and commitment on the organization in order to application the strategy of change effectively and successfully” (Beverage (2003)

Therefore, it is concluded that, changes of management is not bad until they enhance the competitiveness and power of an industry. If any change implicated through proper planning and investigation so it will be very effective and will also increase the performance of the organization. So organizations should impose the any change at the right time when studies proved that no time of change. Because we don’s forget the change management system not only critical and complex but also very sensitive so only one wrong decision of any company in any change might be it push company to in under clouds and prove harmful for organization profit and inspite giving development instead company feel difficult to survive in perfect market.

This is strongly recommendation for McDonald’s that must see and again and again ensure that future changes are well very planned there implication is very carefully because these changes will be cause of the success /or failure of any company.